In 1984, almost in parallel with the 1E engine, with a delay of several months, production of the 2E engine began. The design has not undergone significant changes, but the working volume has increased, which amounted to 1.3 liters.
The increase was due to the boring of the cylinders to a larger diameter and an increase in the piston stroke. To increase power, the compression ratio was further raised to 9.5:1. The 2E 1.3 engine was installed on the following Toyota models:
- Toyota Corolla (AE92, AE111) – South Africa;
- Toyota Corolla (EE90, EE96, EE97, EE100);
- Toyota Sprinter (EE90, EE96, EE97, EE100);
- Toyota Starlet (EP71, EP81, EP82, EP90);
- Toyota Starlet Van (EP76V);
- Toyota Corsa;
- Toyota Conquest (South Africa);
- Toyota Tazz (South Africa);
- Toyota Tercel (South America).
In 1999, the internal combustion engine was discontinued, only the production of spare parts was retained.
The basis of the engine, the cylinder block, is made of cast iron. An in-line four-cylinder ICE layout was used. The location of the camshaft is top, SOHC.
The timing gear is driven by a toothed belt. To reduce the weight of the engine, the cylinder head is made of aluminum alloy. Also, the use of a hollow crankshaft and relatively thin cylinder walls contribute to a reduction in the mass of the engine. The power plant was installed transversely in the engine compartment of cars.
The head has 3 valves for each cylinder, which are driven by one camshaft. There are no phase shifters and hydraulic compensators, valve clearances need periodic adjustment. Valve seals are not reliable.
Their failure is accompanied by a sharp increase in oil consumption, its entry into the combustion chamber and the formation of unwanted soot. In advanced cases, detonation knocks are added.
The power system is a carburetor. Sparking is provided by a non-contact ignition system with a mechanical distributor and high-voltage wires, which caused a lot of criticism.
The engine, like its predecessor, does not have a high resource, but has a reputation as a reliable hard worker. The unpretentiousness of the engine, ease of maintenance is noted. The only component that requires skilled care is the carburetor, due to the complex adjustment.
The power of the engine was 65 hp. at 6,000 rpm. A year after the start of production, in 1985, modernization was carried out. There were no fundamental changes, the return in the new version increased to 74 hp. at 6,200 rpm.
Since 1986, distributed electronic fuel injection has been used instead of a carburetor power system. This version was designated 2E–E, and produced 82 hp at 6,000 rpm. The version with an injector and a catalytic converter was designated 2E-EU, with a carburetor and a catalyst – 2E-LU.
On a Toyota Corolla car with an injection engine of 1987, fuel consumption was 7.3 l / 100 km in the urban cycle, which is a very good indicator for that time, in relation to a engine of such power. Another plus of this version was that, along with the outdated ignition system, the problems associated with it were gone.
Cars equipped with this engine were popular. The flaws of the engine were covered by ease of maintenance, economy, maintainability of vehicles.
The result of further modernization was the 2E-TE engine, which was produced from 1986 to 1989 and was installed on a Toyota Starlet car. This engine was already positioned as a sports engine, and has undergone a deeper modernization. The main difference from its predecessor is the presence of a turbocharger.
The compression ratio was reduced to 8.0:1 to avoid detonation, the maximum speed was limited to 5,400 rpm. At these speeds, the internal combustion engine produced 100 hp.
The next version of the turbo engine under the designation 2E-TELU, that is, with electronic injection, turbocharging and a catalyst, was boosted to 110 hp. at 5400 rpm.
Here, we will investigate the characteristics of this engine by referring to the data of the 2E type naturally aspirated engine installed in Toyota’s EL30 type Corolla II GL 1988/05 model.
2E Type Naturally Aspirated Engine Specifications
Toyota’s EL30 type Corolla II
|Vehicle model||E-EL30 type|
|Car name & grade||Corolla II |
|Inner diameter x stroke||73.0 mm x 77.4 mm|
|Bore stroke ratio||1.06|
|Single cylinder volume||323.9cc|
|Intake method||Naturally aspirated|
|Fuel used||Regular gasoline|
|Maximum output||73PS / 6000rpm|
|Maximum torque||10.3kgm / 4000rpm|
First of all, as a basic structure, the 2E type engine is a long stroke type engine with a bore (inner diameter) of 73.0 mm, a stroke (stroke) of 77.4 mm, and a bore stroke ratio of 1.06 (the stroke amount is larger than the piston diameter).
When the displacement and the number of cylinders are the same, the engine has better torque characteristics in the low rpm range than the short stroke type and is easy to handle, but in the high rpm range, the filling efficiency deteriorates and the sliding resistance increases. There is a concern that the output will drop.
Moreover, when the number of revolutions is the same, the average piston speed tends to be higher than that of the short stroke type, so the load on the engine tends to be heavier.
Among the models registered on this site, the oldest model equipped with the 2E type naturally inhaled engine is the second generation Corolla II [EL30 type | 1988/05] released from 1986/05, and the newest model is. It is the 6th generation Corolla Wagon [EE97G type | 1989/08] released from 1987/05, and all 3 models of NA car are registered and 0 car model of turbo / SC car are registered.
Evaluation from the viewpoint of transient characteristics and liter equivalent horsepower
|Image of engine performance curve|
|Changes in horsepower||57.5PS → 73PS|
|Transition of torque||10.3kgm → 8.7kgm|
|Liter horsepower||56.37PS / L|
|Liter torque||8.0kgm / L|
The corolla II in-line 4-cylinder 1295cc engine with a compression ratio of 9.5 and regular gasoline specifications, which is the reference vehicle for this time, produces a maximum output of 73 horsepower at 6000 rpm and a maximum torque of 10.3 kgm at 6000 rpm.
If you know the horsepower and the number of revolutions, you can know the torque, and if you know the torque and the number of revolutions, you can know the horsepower. The torque at 6000 rpm is 8.7 kgm.
The horsepower per liter of displacement is 56.37PS / L and the torque is 8.0kgm / L, and the horsepower per cylinder (single cylinder volume 323.9cc) is 18.2PS and the torque is 2.6kgm.
When the 2E type naturally aspirated engine is applied to a 10-step evaluation based on the deviation value aggregated from all NA vehicles registered on this site, the evaluation is ” modest ” with a converted horsepower of [ 3 ] and a converted torque of [ 1 ]. It is categorized as ” engine with high output “.
Displacement increase, compression ratio increase, bore stroke ratio change
|Normal displacement and compression ratio|
|Bore||Stroke||Displacement||Compression ratio||B / S ratio|
|Displacement expansion by bore up|
|Displacement expansion by increasing stroke|
There are three factors that determine the engine displacement: the number of cylinders, the bore diameter, and the stroke amount. By increasing or decreasing these, engines with various displacements are created.
Here, regardless of whether it is actually possible, the displacement when the piston diameter is expanded from the genuine 73.0 mm to 76.0 mm in 0.5 mm increments and when the stroke is extended from the genuine 77.4 mm to 82.4 mm in 1 mm increments. And, the change of the compression ratio when it is assumed that the combustion chamber volume does not change is listed.
* It is easy to say stroke up, but if you want to make a long stroke, you need a crankshaft and a compatible connecting rod, and if you can not divert it, you have to make it in one-off, so it is expensive anyway. It is a menu that requires considerable preparedness to put out.
Regarding the compression ratio, in most cases, the uneven capacity of the top surface of the piston changes as the diameter of the piston increases, so the compression ratio values in the list do not match, but the displacement. Please enjoy the atmosphere that the compression ratio will naturally increase as you increase the size.
The B / S ratio is an abbreviation for the bore stroke ratio, and as the bore diameter is widened, the characteristics of the long stroke type, square type, or short stroke type are approached. In the case of 2E type engine, the ratio changes from 1.06 to 1.02 when the bore is increased by +3.0mm from the genuine piston.
Increased displacement with engines with similar piston diameters
There are 38 engines with pistons that are close in size to the piston diameter of 73.0 mm of the 2E type engine, so let’s calculate the displacement when the bore is raised by diversion of the piston as a sideshow.
|Eg model||Piston diameter||Displacement|
As engines with similar piston diameters, Nissan: GA15 type 1497cc 73.6mm mounted on WFGY10 type Racine, Nissan: QG15 type 1497cc 73.6mm mounted on FB15 type Familia business wagon, Honda: GA2 type city D13C type 1296cc 73.7mm, Toyota: 4E type 1331cc 74.0mm mounted on EL41 type Corolla II, Toyota: 5E type 1496cc 74.0mm mounted on EL44 type Sinos, Suzuki: mounted on AA34S type Cartas G13B type 1298cc 74.0mm etc. are applicable.
(Although the number of people who find pleasure in such a quest has decreased) No matter how close the diameter is, there are factors such as the diameter of the piston pin, the height of the piston, and the convenience of valve recess, so if possible, the same manufacturer, If possible, if you choose the same fuel and the same intake method, and if possible, the one with a similar displacement, the possibility of genuine diversion may increase.
Average piston speed
Next, let’s look at the average piston speed. The average piston speed at 6000 rpm, where an engine with a stroke of 77.4 mm produces maximum output, is 15.5 m / s, which is a piston speed that travels a distance of 15.5 meters per second (55.8 km / h at speed). It means that is moving up and down.
At 4000 rpm, which produces the maximum torque, 10.3 m / s, and when 6500 rpm, which is 500 rpm higher than 6000 rpm, which produces the maximum output, is assumed to be the rev limit, the average speed is 16.8 m / s.
For reference, I calculated the change in piston speed when a 2E engine with a stroke of 77.4 mm is rotated up to 10000 rpm. Looking at this, it seems that the speed increases by approximately 5.15 m / s as the number of revolutions increases by 2000 revolutions.
Considering only 20.0 m / s, which is a guideline for general engines assuming mass production, it is mechanical to set the upper limit of high rpm to about 7750 rpm (whether it rotates or not). It seems to be preferred both mentally.
2E engine Problems And Reliability
The 2E series engines, like any other, have their own reliability and problems. The positive qualities of these engines can be considered low operating costs, ease of maintenance, high maintainability, with the exception of turbocharged engines. Versions with a turbine, among other things, have a significantly reduced resource.
The 2E Engine Most Common Problems include:
- Thermal loading, especially in severe operating conditions, respectively, the tendency to overheat.
- Bending of the valves when the timing belt breaks (except for the first version 2E).
- At the slightest overheating, the cylinder head gasket breaks through with all the ensuing consequences. The possibility of repeated grinding of the head softens the picture.
- Short-lived valve seals that need periodic replacement (usually 50,000 km).
Carburetor versions were plagued by misfires and difficult adjustments.
2E Engine Specifications
The table shows some characteristics of the 2E engine:
|Number and arrangement of cylinders||4, in a row||4, in a row||4, in a row|
|Working volume, cm³||1295||1295||1295|
|Maximum power, hp||55||75–85||100–110|
|Maximum torque, Nm||75||95–105||150–160|
|Cylinder diameter, mm||73||73||73|
|Piston stroke, mm||77.4||77.4||77.4|
|Compression ratio||9.0 : 1||9.5:1||8.0:1|
|Gas distribution mechanism||SOHC||SOHC||SOHC|
|number of valves||12||12||12|
|Oil volume, l.||3.2||3.2||3.2|
|Environmental class||EURO 0||EURO 2||EURO 2|
In general, the engines of the 2E series, with the exception of turbocharged ones, enjoyed a reputation for not being the most durable, but reliable and unpretentious engine, which, with proper care, more than justify the money invested in them. 250-300 thousand km without capital is not the limit for them.
Overhaul of the engine, contrary to the statement of Toyota Corporation about their disposability, does not cause any problems due to the simplicity of the design. Contract engines of this series are offered in sufficient quantity and in a wide price range, but a good copy will have to be looked for due to the great age of the engines.
It is difficult to repair turbocharged versions. But they lend themselves to tuning. By increasing the boost pressure, you can add 15 – 20 hp without much hassle, but at the cost of reducing the resource, which is already low in relation to other Toyota engines.