K3-VE Engine 1.3 Specs, Oil, Problems, Reliability

K3-VE engine is a classic 1.3-liter inline-four produced by Toyota since 2000.Timing drivecarried out by a chain, the engine is also equipped with a VVT-i system, a variable valve timing clutch is located on the intake camshaft. The aluminum block and cylinder head make the motor quite light.

The cylinder head is built according to the DOHC system – it is equipped with 2 camshafts and 16 valves. The engine is designed for small cars from Daihatsu and Toyota.

Its power is only 86 horsepower, yes, the power figures are quite low, the torque is only 120 Hm. This engine is considered long-stroke – the piston stroke is 79.7 mm larger than the cylinder diameter, the latter, in turn, is 72 mm.

Read Also: Toyota 2SZ-FE 1.3 Engine Specs, Problems, Oil, Reliability

 K3-VE List of modifications

There were only three types of engines. Of these, two atmospheric and one turbocharged.

  • K3-VE is the basic modification of the engine. It had a power of 86-92 hp, was equipped with a VVT-i variable valve timing system, and a timing chain drive was also used.
  • K3-VE2 – the power plant received a system for changing the length of the intake manifold, it is also equipped with a VVT-i system, the clutch of which is located on the intake camshaft. The engine develops 110 horsepower.
  • K3-VET is a turbocharged version of the K3 VE engine, the engineers introduced the VQ41 supercharger. A pressure of 0.5 bar allowed the engine to develop 140 hp, the torque of the power plant is 177 Hm.

K3-VE Specifications


Engine volume, cc

1296

Maximum power, hp

86 – 140

Maximum torque, N * m (kg * m) at rpm.

120 (12) / 3200


123 (13) / 3200


123 (13) / 4400


124 (13) / 3200


124 (13) / 4000125 (13) / 4400177 (18) / 3200126 (13) / 4400

Fuel used

Gasoline Regular (AI-92, AI-95)Gasoline AI-95

Fuel consumption, l/100 km

5.9 – 7.6

engine’s type

4-stroke, 4-cylinder, DOHC, vertical arrangement, liquid cooling

Add.
engine information

3

CO2 emissions, g/km

136 – 141

Cylinder diameter, mm

72

Number of valves per cylinder

four

Maximum power, hp
(kW) at rpm

86 (63) / 6000


90 (66) / 6000


92 (68) / 6000


110 (81) / 7000


140 (103) / 6400

The mechanism for changing the volume of cylinders

No

Start-stop system

optional

Compression ratio

9-11

Piston stroke, mm

79.6 – 80

Engine oil K3-VE

5w-30, 0w-30

Timing mechanism

DOHC, chain drive with VVT-i

Operating temperature of the engine, hail.

~95

Engine resource, thousand km – according to the plant – in practice

n.d.~200

Environmental regulations

Euro 4

Tuning – potential – without loss of resource

150+n.d.

Fuel

95

How much oil is in the engine

3.7

Oil change is carried out, km

10000(better than 5000)

Phase regulator

at the VVT-i inlet

Turbocharging

Depending on the version

hydraulic lifters

No

Valve clearances

0.15-0.25 for intake, 0.25-0.35 for exhaust

K3-VE was installed on cars:

Daihatsu BEGO11.2005
Daihatsu BEGO11.2005
Daihatsu COO10.2006
Daihatsu COPEN03.2006
Daihatsu EXTOL bus (S22_, S23_)10.2003
Daihatsu EXTOL bus (S22_, S23_)10.2003
Daihatsu EXTOL bus (S22_, S23_)07.2000
Daihatsu EXTOL bus (S22_, S23_)07.200009.2003
Daihatsu EXTOL van07.2000
Daihatsu MATERIA (M4_)10.2006
Daihatsu RUSH11.2005
Daihatsu SIRION (M3_)03.2008
Daihatsu SIRION (M3_)03.2008
Daihatsu SIRION (M3_)04.2005
Daihatsu SIRION (M3_)01.2005
Daihatsu STORIA04.2005
Daihatsu TERIOS (J1)10.200210.2005
Daihatsu TERIOS (J1)09.200110.2005
Daihatsu TERIOS (J1)10.200010.2005
Daihatsu TERIOS (J2_)11.2005
Daihatsu TERIOS (J2_)11.2005
Daihatsu XENIA05.2007
Daihatsu XENIA01.2002
Daihatsu YRV station wagon (M2)02.2001
Daihatsu YRV station wagon (M2)02.2001

 

K3-VE Engine Specifications And Performance Summary

Here, we will investigate the characteristics and characteristics of this engine by referring to the data of the K3-VE type naturally aspirated engine installed in Toyota’s S231E type Sparky G 2002/06 model.

K3-VE type naturally aspirated engine specifications

toyota SPARKY K3-VE
Toyota’s S231E type Sparky
Vehicle modelLA-S231E type
Car name & gradeSparky
G
Engine modelK3-VE
typeIn-line 4-cylinder
Displacement1297cc
Inner diameter x stroke72.0 mm x 79.7 mm
Bore stroke ratio1.11
Single cylinder volume324.5cc
Compression ratio10.0
Intake methodNaturally aspirated
Fuel usedRegular gasoline
Maximum output92PS / 6000rpm
Maximum torque12.7kgm / 4400rpm

First of all, as a basic structure, the K3 type engine is a long stroke type engine with a bore (inner diameter) of 72.0 mm, a stroke (stroke) of 79.7 mm, and a bore stroke ratio of 1.11 (the stroke amount is larger than the piston diameter).

When the displacement and the number of cylinders are the same, the engine has better torque characteristics in the low rpm range than the short stroke type and is easy to handle, but in the high rpm range, the filling efficiency deteriorates and the sliding resistance increases. There is a concern that the output will drop.

Moreover, when the number of revolutions is the same, the average piston speed tends to be higher than that of the short stroke type, so the load on the engine tends to be heavier.

Among the models registered on this site, the oldest model equipped with the K3-VE type naturally aspirated engine is the first Sparky [S231E type | 2002/06] released from 2000/09 , and the newest model is. It is the second generation bB [QNC25 type | 2010/07] released from December 2005 , and 16 models of NA cars and 0 models of turbo / SC cars are registered in all 16 models.

Evaluation from the viewpoint of transient characteristics and liter equivalent horsepower

Image of engine performance curve
K3 engine performance curve diagram
Changes in horsepower78.0PS → 92PS
Transition of torque12.7kgm → 11.0kgm
Liter horsepower70.93PS / L
Liter torque9.8kgm / L

Sparky’s in-line 4-cylinder 1297cc engine with a compression ratio of 10.0 and regular gasoline specifications, which is the reference vehicle for this time, produces a maximum output of 92 horsepower at 6000 rpm and a maximum torque of 12.7 kgm at 6000 rpm.

If you know the horsepower and the number of revolutions, you can know the torque, and if you know the torque and the number of revolutions, you can know the horsepower. The torque at 6000 rpm is 11.0 kgm.

The horsepower per liter of displacement is 70.93PS / L and the torque is 9.8kgm / L, and the horsepower per cylinder (single cylinder volume 324.5cc) is 23.0PS and the torque is 3.2kgm.

When the K3 type naturally aspirated engine is applied to a 10-step evaluation based on deviation values ​​aggregated from all NA vehicles registered on this site, the evaluation is ” standard ” with a converted horsepower of [ 5 ] and a converted torque of [ 6 ]. It is categorized as an engine with a typical output (bottom of the middle) .

By the way, among the models equipped with K3-VE type turbo / SC engine, the highest output is 92PS / 12.7kgm of S231E type Sparky, and the smallest is 90PS / 12.6kgm of M101A type duet.

Displacement increase, compression ratio increase, bore stroke ratio change

Normal displacement and compression ratio
BoreStrokeDisplacementCompression ratioB / S ratio
72.079.71297cc10.01.11
Displacement expansion by bore up
72.579.71316cc10.1.1.10
73.01334cc10.31.09
73.51353cc10.41.08
74.01371cc10.51.08
74.51390cc10.61.07
75.01408cc10.81.06
Displacement expansion by increasing stroke
72.080.71314cc10.1.1.12
81.71331cc10.21.13
82.71347cc10.31.15
83.71363cc10.41.16
84.71379cc10.61.18

There are three factors that determine the engine displacement: the number of cylinders, the bore diameter, and the stroke amount. By increasing or decreasing these, engines with various displacements are created.

Here, regardless of whether it is actually possible or not, the displacement when the piston diameter is expanded from the genuine 72.0 mm to 75.0 mm in 0.5 mm increments and when the stroke is extended from the genuine 79.7 mm to 84.7 mm in 1 mm increments. And, the change of the compression ratio when it is assumed that the combustion chamber volume does not change is listed.

* It is easy to say stroke up, but if you want to make a long stroke, you need a crankshaft and a compatible connecting rod, and if you can not use it as a genuine product, you have to make it in one-off, so it is expensive anyway. It is a menu that requires considerable preparedness to put out.

Regarding the compression ratio, in most cases, the uneven capacity of the top surface of the piston changes as the diameter of the piston increases, so the compression ratio values ​​in the list do not match, but the displacement. Please enjoy the atmosphere that the compression ratio will naturally increase as you increase the size.

B / S ratio is an abbreviation for bore stroke ratio, and as the bore diameter is widened, the characteristics of the long stroke type, square type, or short stroke type are approached. In the case of K3 type engine, the ratio changes from 1.11 to 1.06 when the bore is increased by +3.0mm from the genuine piston.

Increased displacement with engines with similar piston diameters

There are 45 engines with pistons that are similar in size to the K3 type engine with a piston diameter of 72.0 mm, so as a side note, let’s calculate the displacement when the piston is diverted and the bore is raised.

Eg modelPiston diameterDisplacement
Honda
L15B type
73.0mm
[+ 1.0mm]
1334cc
[+ 37cc]
Mitsubishi
K12C type
73.0mm
[+ 1.0mm]
1334cc
[+ 37cc]
Honda
LEB type
73.0mm
[+ 1.0mm]
1334cc
[+ 37cc]
Honda
L15A type
73.0mm
[+ 1.0mm]
1334cc
[+ 37cc]
Mitsubishi
K12B type
73.0mm
[+ 1.0mm]
1334cc
[+ 37cc]
Honda
LEA type
73.0mm
[+ 1.0mm]
1334cc
[+ 37cc]

For engines with similar piston diameters, Honda: L15B type 1496cc 73.0mm mounted on RW1 type CR-V, Mitsubishi: K12C type 1242cc 73.0mm mounted on ZC83S type Delica D: 2, Honda: RU3 type Vezel LEB type 1496cc 73.0mm mounted on Honda: L15A type 1496cc 73.0mm mounted on GE8 type Fit, Mitsubishi: K12B type 1242cc 73.0mm mounted on ZC72S type Delica D: 2, Honda: ZF2 type The LEA type 1496cc 73.0mm mounted on the CR-Z is applicable.

(Although the number of people who find pleasure in such a quest has decreased) No matter how close the diameter is, there are factors such as the diameter of the piston pin, the height of the piston, and the convenience of valve recess, so if possible, the same manufacturer, If possible, if you choose the same fuel and the same intake method, and if possible, the one with a similar displacement, the possibility of genuine diversion may increase.

Average piston speed

strokeMaximum torque
4400rpm
Maximum output
6000 rpm
79.7mm11.7m / s15.9m / s
Rotation speed / minuteper secondSpeed
2000rpm5.3m / s19km / h
4000rpm10.6m / s38km / h
6000rpm15.9m / s57km / h
8000rpm21.3m / s77km / h
10000rpm26.6m / s96km / h

Next, let’s look at the average piston speed. The average piston speed at 6000 rpm, where an engine with a stroke of 79.7 mm produces maximum output, is 15.9 m / s , which is a piston speed that travels a distance of 15.9 meters per second (57.2 km / h at speed). It means that is moving up and down.

The average speed is 11.7 m / s at 4400 rpm, which generates the maximum torque, and 17.3 m / s when 6500 rpm, which is 500 rpm higher than the 6000 rpm where the maximum output is generated, is assumed to be the rev limit.

For reference, I calculated the change in piston speed when a K3 engine with a stroke of 79.7 mm is rotated up to 10000 rpm. Looking at this, it seems that the speed increases by approximately 5.33 m / s as the number of revolutions increases by 2000 revolutions.

Considering only 20.0 m / s, which is a guideline for a general engine premised on mass production, it is mechanical to set the upper limit of high rotation to about 7530 rotations (whether it turns or not). It seems to be preferred both mentally.

The manufacturer also introduced a turbine, this modification was marked K3-VET, it is also equipped with a VVT-i system, timing chain drive and 16 valvecylinder head. The turbine pressure is 0.5 bar. The compression ratio compared to the atmospheric counterpart fell by 1.5 engine. This engine boasts a power of 140 horsepower, torque has grown to 177 Hm.

The engine did not become an innovative breakthrough, but has several distinctive features:

  • Aluminum block and cylinder head;
  • the use of glasses – pushers (Valve lifter);
  • timing chain drive;
  • application of the VVT-i system on the intake camshaft;
  • individual main bearing caps;
  • the presence of a turbocharged modification;
  • oil pump drive by a separate circuit;
  • the engine is equipped with distributed fuel injection;
  • the emission of harmful substances is minimal – from 168 to 190 g / km.

Service Schedule K3-VE

Engine oil is one of the most important consumables. Its timely replacement will maximize the life of the engine. It is important to select the oil in accordance with the manual. The manufacturer recommends using synthetic-based oils with a viscosity of 0w-30, 5w-30 for K3-VE.

The clutch of the variable valve timing system VVT-i is very picky about the quality of the oil and its change intervals

The Engine maintenance schedule is presented below:

  • The timing chain needs to be changed after every 100 thousand kilometers. If you skip this rule, then the timing chain may break or jump. After such, deplorable consequences cannot be avoided, at best – repair of the cylinder head with the replacement of valves, at worst – a complete overhaul of the CPG and cylinder head.
  • Spark plug it is recommended to change every 50 thousand km. Failure to follow this rule may result in uneven engine operation. Also, the ignition coils of the DIS-4 system can fail due to faulty spark plugs.
  • An oil change must be done at least once every 10 thousand kilometers, if this is not done, then oil deposits will first kill the VVT-i system, then small oil channels will become clogged with oil dirt, and friction pairs will wear out, as a result, the engine will simply jam.
  • Fuel replacement andair filters should be carried out every 20 thousand km, and the coarse fuel filter is changed every 50,000 km. run.
  • The attachment belt should be checked once a year. If cracks appear or threads come out of the belt, then it should be replaced immediately.
  • It is recommended to check the condition of the cooling system once a year, the pump runs up to 60 thousand km on average, it is recommended to change the coolant every 100 thousand kilometers.
  • The valves need to be adjusted every 60,000 km., The adjustment is made with special pushers-glasses, the procedure is quite expensive, but if it is neglected, then the clang of the valves and the incorrect operation of the power plant are ensured.

 K3-VE Most Common Faults and How to fix them

This engine has several flaws. But timely maintenance and moderate loads can help to avoid them. For example, with proper operation, the engine will not bother you with oil consumption and rattling of the timing chain, and starting on a frosty morning will not cause problems. A good attitude towards the engine will extend its life by 100-200 thousand km.

Below are the most typical breakdowns and weaknesses:

  1. Increased oil consumption after 100,000 thousand kilometers can be treated with a simple operation – replacing valve stem seals, in 90% of cases it helps. If the repair of the oil deflectors did not bring results, then only a major overhaul of the power plant will help. Most often, motorists simply install a contract ICE;
  2. Noise in the cylinder head area often appears due to a malfunction of the gas distribution mechanism. On long runs, this is due to a stretched timing chain. If the figure on the odometer of your car is less than 50 thousand km, then the timing chain tensioner is most likely to blame, replacing it will help solve the situation;
  3. Also, noise in the cylinder head can be caused by increased thermal valve clearances. It is easy to cure the problem – you need to adjust the valves. The procedure is quite easy, but very expensive;
  4. Poor starting in the cold season is very often due to problems with valve clearance, since hydraulic compensators are not provided. This is treated by the usual procedure for adjusting valve clearances;
  5. It is not uncommon for ignition coils to fail. They are very sensitive to the quality of spark plugs. Also, due to torn candle well seals, oil can get into the coils;
  6. Rough engine operation can be caused by dirty injectors. Only complete nozzle cleaning. It is also worth refueling high-quality fuel at proven gas stations.

Conclusion

The easiest and cheapest option would be to replace the engine with a more powerful one. For example, you can install a turbo fellow K3 VE. Marked K3 VET, this engine has a capacity of 140 horsepower.

It is worth noting that its CPG and cylinder head are already designed at the factory for turbocharging, so the resource of the power unit will be the same as that of the atmospheric version.

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