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Toyota 1NZ-FE/FXE 1.5L Best Specs, Problems & Reliability

The 1NZ-FE engine is a transverse powertrain designed for front-wheel drive passenger cars. It is an in-line, 4-cylinder, sequential fuel injection engine equipped with a twin-shaft overhead gas distribution (DOHC).

Toyota 1NZ-FE FXE 1.5L Engine Review Specs Problems Reliability

The mechanism is driven by a narrow single-row roller chain with an 8 mm pitch between the links. The “proprietary” variable valve timing system of the second generation VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing), developed by Toyota engineers, is installed on the intake shaft.

1NZ-FE Specifications

Cylinder volume (working)1497 cm3
Maximum power, hp from. (at 6000 rpm.)109
Maximum torque, N.m (at 4200 rpm)141
Number of valves per cylinder4
Number of cylinders4
Total number of valves16
Cylinder diameter75 mm
Piston stroke84.6 mm
Fuel supply systemSequential injection (SFI system)
Compression ratio10.5 - 13.4
Variable valve timing systemVVT-i
Fuel consumption, l / 100 km (city / highway / mixed mode)13/6 / 9.5
Type of fuelUnleaded gasoline
AI-92 or AI-95
Lubrication systemFull-flow cleaning of engine oil with its supply to moving parts using a trochoid pump.
Engine oil type5W-30, 10w-30
The volume of oil for the engine crankcase3.7 L
CoolantBased on ethylene glycol, density 1.07-1.08 g / cm3
Cooling systemLiquid, closed type, with forced circulation through the U-shaped channel.
Weight112 kg
Motor resource, (factory / practice)200,000 km
  • The cylinder block is made of an aluminum alloy with an open cooling jacket and molded thin-walled cast iron liners. This design does not imply overhaul of the power unit.
  • In order to reduce wear on the cylinders, the forged crankshaft is installed with an offset of its axis relative to the line of the cylinder axes. Light-alloy engine pistons with a lightweight skirt coated with LFA (Low Friction Resin With Aluminum).
  • There are no hydraulic compensators in the valve drive of the gas distribution mechanism, and therefore the engine requires periodic (every 20,000 km) adjustment of the valve clearances. It is carried out using a set of pushers.
  • Distributed fuel injection is sequential, in which each injector is controlled by a special signal from the electronic engine control unit. The supply of the control signal depends on the operating conditions of the engine.

Installed on Toyota cars:

  • Corolla
  • Yaris
  • Premio
  • Auris
  • Allion
  • Ractis
  • Sienta
  • Geely MK
  • Geely CK

1NZ-FE Maintenance

Engine maintenance is reduced to regular procedures:

  • Change the engine oil every 10,000 km.
  • Adjustment of the valve clearances of the gas distribution mechanism every 20,000 km of the distance traveled.
  • Replacing the timing chain drive every 150,000-200,000 km.

1NZ-FE Problems & Reliability

Malfunctions characteristic of the 1NZ FE engine begin to appear after a significant mileage. Moreover, they are all caused by the fact that the developers of this power unit used almost all known methods to reduce its durability. This was caused by the need to solve a more complex problems – to create the shortest possible (along the length of the crankshaft) motor.

More 1NZ-FE common problems than others:

Noise and knocking in the engine.Extension of the timing chain.- Replace chain.
- Check the tensioner and chain damper at the same time and replace if necessary.
High consumption of engine oil.Worn oil scraper rings or seals.- De-carbonize the oil scraper rings.
- Replace the valve stem seals and / or rings.
Strong vibration of the engine.Clogged fuel filter and / or fuel injection nozzles.- Clean the nozzles.
- Replace the fuel filter.
Whistling in the engine.The alternator belt has become unusable.Replace alternator belt.
The oil pressure indicator light on the instrument panel is on.The engine oil pressure sensor is clogged or out of order.Replace the engine oil pressure sensor.
The engine speed is floating in idle mode.Clogged:
- idle sensor
- throttle body
The malfunction is eliminated by cleaning the clogged units.

The 1NZ engine is generally tuned using readymade kits available commercially to improve performance without any problems.

Among them are:

  • Standard turbo kit (a set of accessories for tuning 1NZ engines) from TRD, which includes: IHI RHF4 turbine; 2ZZ-GE injectors; fuel pump 1JZ-GTE, etc. Ensure the compliance of the engine with the specified technical characteristics by setting the electronic control unit 1NZ-FET / GReddy e-Manage Ultimate
  • Supercharger kit Blitz, when using which you need to additionally purchase: 2ZZ-GE injectors; thick cylinder head gasket; fuel pump 1JZ-GTE.
  • By installing the necessary components and correctly tuning the engine characteristics with the GReddy e-Manage Ultimate, you can get a good high-torque engine for a city car with a capacity of 145-160 hp.


The NZ series powertrains, designed for Toyota small cars, first appeared in the automotive market in 1997. The base engine of the family is the 109 hp 1NZ FE engine. from. (cylinder volume 1.5 l).

Among automotive power units, 1NZ are rightfully considered to be long-livers, since until now they are serially manufactured and installed on modern models of cars from various manufacturers.

Mitsubishi 4G63 2.0L Best Specs, Problems & Reliability

The 4G63 engine is one of the most popular four-cylinder in-line engines, which was designed by the specialists of the Japanese company Mitsubishi. This power unit has about a dozen different modifications that have been installed on many Mitsubishi models.

Mitsubishi 4G63 2.0 Engine Review Specs Problems Reliability

The first 4G63 modification appeared back in 1981, and continues to be produced to this day with minor changes. The excellent technical characteristics of this engine are combined with its excellent reliability. The engines of the 4G63 family are four-cylinder power units that have a volume of 2.0 liters and power from 109 to 144 horsepower.

The 4G63 engine has a cast iron cylinder block and an aluminum head for maximum overheating resistance. Depending on its modification, this engine was equipped with DOHC and SOHC gas distribution systems with two or one camshaft.

This engine was originally equipped with two valves per cylinder. In the 1990 revision, a modification with 16 valves appeared, which made it possible to obtain the maximum possible power from a two-liter engine.

4G63 Modifications

  • In the mid-eighties, simultaneously with the main engine, the 4G63T modification appeared, which had a turbocharging system and a 12-valve system. This engine was distinguished by increased power, however, due to the imperfection of the used 4G63T turbine, it did not receive proper distribution. The only exceptions were sports versions, on which the turbo engine produced about 300 horsepower and provided the cars with enviable dynamic performance.
  • In 1986, the 4G63T modification, which also had the name Sirius, was replaced by the 4G63. This line of engines used the DOHC gas distribution system, which in turn allowed to improve power performance. The 4G63 engine met the stringent Japanese environmental regulations.
  • Soon, modifications appeared with four valves per cylinder and an upgraded SOHC gas distribution system. This version of the engine provided excellent dynamics and at the same time had low fuel consumption.
  • In 1993, an updated modification of the 4G63 engine appeared, which was equipped with a flywheel attached to seven bolts. The intake system was changed, and an injection fuel system appeared. The 4G64 engine with minor changes, but already under a new index, is being produced up to the present day.

Some Chinese manufacturers still use this engine in their cars today, and buyers appreciate this engine for its excellent reliability and maintainability.

4G63 2.0 Specs

Years of release1981 - today
Engine weight160kg
Supply systemCarburetor / Injector
Cylinder block materialCast iron
Power109 hp at 5500 rpm
Number of cylinders4
Number of valves per cylinder2
Cylinder diameter85 mm
Piston stroke88 mm
Compression ratio9
Torque159 Nm / 4500 rpm
Environmental standardsEURO 4
Fuel consumption13.9 l / 100 km combined
Oil type0W-40
How much oil is in the engine4.0
When replacing the casting3.5 liters
Oil change is carried out10,000 km

4G63 engine are installed on:

  • Mitsubishi Eclipse
  • Galant
  • L200 / Triton
  • Lancer
  • Outlander
  • Space Runner / RVR
  • Hyundai Elantra
  • Stellar
  • Eagle Talon / Plymouth Laser
  • Dodge Ram 50
  • Proton Perdana

4G63 Problems & Reliability

The appearance of vibration in 4G63T.The reason for this may be problems with the balance shafts, which are poorly lubricated under conditions of increased load, which leads to their vibration and ultimately to a wedge.
Repair consists in replacing worn balancing shafts. Another weak point of this power unit is the engine mountings, which are recommended to be replaced when vibration appears.
Floating revolutions.Problems can be caused by a temperature sensor, injectors, or a dirty throttle valve on carburetor versions of the engine.
Repair is complicated by the difficulty of diagnosing a failed element. It is especially difficult to find the cause on old engines that do not allow computer diagnostics of the engine.
The appearance of knocking in the engine under load.By 50,000 mileage, hydraulic lifters may die, as a result, a characteristic knock and problems in engine operation appear.
Repair in this case will consist in replacing failed hydraulic lifters. As a preventive measure, we can recommend that you use high-quality oil and change it every 10,000 kilometers.

Engines of the 4G63 series are reliable and have a solid resource for increasing power.

  • The simplest tuning option may be the use of upgraded shafts, which allow for about 20 horsepower gains in power. Simultaneously with the installation of the shafts, a cold start is replaced, and the firmware in the engine control unit is changed.
  • The naturally aspirated Lancer engine can be turbocharged from 4G63T, which allows an increase in engine power by 100-150 horsepower. In this case, the manifold, the cylinder head, the piston group, the pan, the liners and the fuel pump are changing.
  • It is possible to use spare parts from the Evolution sports modification, which allows you to get the engine power at the level of 200-250 horsepower. It should be said that this tuning option is of increased complexity and should be performed exclusively by experienced minders.
  • A relatively simple and inexpensive way to tune a this engine is to use a sports direct-flow exhaust system. Depending on the type of exhaust, the car gets about 20-25 additional horsepower. This changes the sound of the engine, which takes on a sporty note and begins to sound like a powerful eight-cylinder engine.


One of the features of this Mitsubishi power unit is the presence of two balancing shafts installed in antiphase. This virtually eliminates the resulting vibrations, especially at maximum engine speeds.

This engine can be used with vehicles in which the power unit is installed longitudinally and transversely. This allowed the 4G63 to be installed with equal ease on full-size sedans and station wagons, as well as on compact city cars.

Depending on its modification, this engine was equipped with a carburetor injection system, mono injection or an injector. Regardless of the fuel supply system used, this engine has established itself as a highly reliable and durable power unit.

The use of an injector with electric injectors made it possible to simultaneously increase engine power and improve its fuel efficiency. The power curve has been smoothed to provide excellent traction from low revs.

Subaru FA20/FA20DIT 2.0L Best Specs, Problems & Reliability

The FA20 is a completely new two-liter engine with an aluminum cylinder block. It is compact and takes up minimum space in the engine compartment.

Subaru FA20 2.0 Engine Review Specs Problems Reliability

With its power ratings, this engine consumes a minimum of fuel, having fuel economy indicators in mixed mode at 7.8 liters per 100 kilometers. For a mid-size crossover, such fuel consumption figures are almost record-breaking.

FA20 Features

Note that in 2014, on the basis of this modification of the power unit, a turbocharged engine was released, which received the FA20DIT index. This Subaru engine developed a power of 272 horsepower, but it was not popular with buyers, since the FA20DIT with a turbine installed had pronounced dips at low speeds.

This engine uses a reliable injector with a direct fuel injection system, which ensures the most complete and high-quality combustion of the fuel mixture in the cylinders.

During the development of its new engine, Subaru actively cooperated with specialists from Toyota, therefore, separate systems are installed on this engine under license from Toyota. For example, a direct injection system is installed on Subaru engines, which is also installed on new modifications of Toyota power units.

We note the presence of a special system for changing the gas distribution on the exhaust and intake camshafts. This ensures maximum flexibility in the operation of the power unit, and also improves its environmental performance.

It should be noted that the Subaru engine was originally designed to use high-octane fuel. Therefore, it is imperative to use high-quality 98 gasoline, which will be the key to the trouble-free operation of this power unit. But attempts to save money and fill the gas tank with 92 or 95 gasoline lead to rapid burnout of the rings and problems with the valve system.

We also note the criticality of this engine to the quality and regularity of the service performed. That is why oil changes and other service work on the engine must be carried out in full compliance with the manufacturer’s requirements. Otherwise, the car owner will face the need to carry out expensive complex repairs.

This engine modification uses a timing chain drive, which simplifies vehicle operation. However, even such a reliable chain system will require proper maintenance. It is recommended, after 250-300 thousand kilometers, to replace the chain, which by this time can be stretched, which is accompanied by characteristic knocks when accelerating.

The new engines have a fully automatic control system that controls all modes of engine operation, improving its behavior at low revs. This made it possible to solve a problem typical for all boxer engines, when a thrust failure was noted at low revs. The use of this fully automatic steering system ensures Euro 5 compliance and improves fuel efficiency.

FA20 Specifications

The Subaru Forester FA20 engine has the following characteristics:

Years of release2012 -
WeightN. d.
Cylinder block materialAluminum
Engine power systemInjector
Cylinder arrangement typeOpposed
Engine displacement2.0 liters
Engine power253 l. from.
Number of cylinders4
Number of valves4
Piston stroke86 mm
Cylinder diameter86 mm
Compression ratio10.6
Torque Nm / rpm350 Nm / 3000
Environmental standardsEURO 5
Fuel consumption7.8 / 100 km
Oil type0W-20
Oil volume in crankcase6.3 liters
Oil change is carried outEvery 8,000 km
Engine resource-n. etc. according to the plant
-200 on practice

The FA20 engine is installed on:

FA20 Problems & Reliability

A characteristic feature of Subaru engines is their boxer type, in which the cylinders are located with a camber angle of 180 degrees. This arrangement allows to remove the power of 253 horsepower from the four-cylinder two-liter naturally aspirated engine.

With a conventional V-shaped or in-line engine, this power would have been impossible without a turbocharger. Whereas this power unit lacks a compressor and a turbine, which has a positive effect on reliability indicators.

The appearance of vibration at low idle.The problem lies in the firmware of the control unit, which must be flashed with new software.
The car stalls frequently.A possible cause is a failure of the camshaft gear, which leads to insufficient oil pressure.
The appearance of pronounced metallic sounds and rustling in the Subaru engine.The timing chain has stretched and needs to be replaced.
The characteristic sounds of knocking valves appear.The use of low-quality gasoline leads to problems with the valve system and the injector. It is necessary to open the motor and, after identifying specific breakdowns, replace the failed parts.

In general, this Subaru engine turned out to be quite reliable and, with proper maintenance, does not cause any trouble to its owners. You just need to remember about the mandatory condition of using 98 gasoline and original high quality oil. Moreover, it is recommended to change the lubricant two times more often than in the technical documentation for this car. That is, such service work should be carried out every 8000 kilometers.

FA20 Tuning

  • The easiest way to increase the power of this power unit is to rewrite the control unit or the so-called chip tuning when a new sports engine control unit is installed. Such work allows you to get about 15-20 additional horsepower. Note that such chip tuning, if carried out correctly, does not in any way affect the engine resource.
  • Installing an intercooler, turbine or compressor will increase power above 400 horsepower. Such tuning is popular among street racing fans, who were able to remove the maximum possible power from a small engine in terms of displacement. At the same time, one should take into account the fact that installing a turbocharger on such a forced boxer engine will lead to a significant decrease in the reliability of the power unit. Even when using quality Turbo kits, overhaul or replacement of the Subaru engine will have to be performed with enviable regularity.


In 2012, the Japanese automaker, Subaru, introduced the fourth generation of its popular Subaru Forester crossover, which received an updated gasoline naturally aspirated engine with increased power at its disposal.

The most popular was the Subaru engine with two liters of volume and a capacity of 253 horsepower. This engine received the FA20 index and has proven itself exclusively on the positive side.

Opel 1.4L Ecotec A14NET Best Specs, Problems & Reliability

The 1.4l Ecotec A14NET it is a modern, economical and powerful engine that meets Euro 5 environmental standards and runs exclusively on 95 gasoline.

Opel Chevrolet 1.4 Ecotec A14NET Engine Review Specs Problems Reliability

Thanks to the use of an injector and other modern systems, it was possible to significantly improve the engine output. With a working volume of 1.4 liters, the power of the power unit is 143 horsepower. That allows you to endow the small Opel Astra with excellent dynamic characteristics. At the same time, the Opel Astra engine is economical and consumes 5.2 liters of gasoline per 100 kilometers in highway conditions.

It was possible to provide excellent power characteristics due to the presence of a turbocharger, which provides excellent vehicle dynamics. Despite the use of a supercharger, there is no deterioration in the reliability and durability of this power unit. This A14NET engine can easily run 350,000 kilometers without requiring any major intervention and engine overhaul.

Thanks to the use of an injector and a fully automatic injection control system, the Opel car engine is completely free from turbo lag, and fuel consumption is significantly reduced when driving on the highway and in urban traffic conditions. This A14NET engine is fully electronically controlled, and the automatic systems used monitor numerous indicators of this engine in real time.

The A14NET engine is easy to maintain, and the timing chain drive eliminates the risk of belt breakage and valve damage. The use of hydraulic lifters completely relieves the car owner from the need to adjust the valve clearance. We also note the original variable valve timing system, in which phase shifters are installed on both shafts.


Opel 1.4l Ecotec A14NET engine specifications:

Years of release2010 -
Weightn. etc.
Cylinder block materialCast iron
Engine power systemInjector
Cylinder arrangement typeIn a row
Engine displacement1.4 liters
Engine power143 l. from.
Number of cylinders4
Number of valves4
Piston stroke82.6 mm
Cylinder diameter72.5 mm
Compression ratio9.5
Torque Nm / rpm200 Nm / 3200
Environmental standardsEURO 5
Fuel consumption6.2 / 100 km
Oil Type5W-30
Oil volume in crankcase4 liters
When replacing the casting3.5 liters
Oil change is carried outEvery 10,000 km
Engine resource-350 according to the plant
- +nd on practice

The A14NET engine is installed on:

  • Opel Corsa D
  • Astra J
  • Opel Mokka
  • Meriva B
  • Chevrolet Cruze


The A16LETmodification is also popular among car owners. This engine has a displacement of 1.6 liters and a power of 180 horsepower. In fact, the A16LET is a complete copy of the A14NET, with the exception of the increased piston diameter. In fact, these are two identical engines that are characterized by fuel efficiency, reliability and durability.

The A16LET is designed to run on 95th gasoline and consumes 9.9 liters of gasoline in urban conditions. At the same time, on the highway, the economy indicators for the A16LETengine are 5.6 liters.

When operating a16let, the car owner needs to pay close attention to compliance with the requirements of the automaker in terms of performing service maintenance on the Opel Astra engine. Only in this case it will be possible to guarantee the durability and reliability of such a power unit.

A14NET Problems & Reliability

The motor has lost some of its power.Such breakdowns are associated with problems with the turbine or are noted when the injector fails.
In some cases, pronounced vibrations can occur at idle and low speeds.This is the case with high voltage coil problems. We can recommend you to carry out the simplest diagnostics of the engine and, if problems with the coils are identified, replace them immediately with a set.
The appearance of characteristic oil smudges in the turbine area.This may indicate bearing problems or the imminent failure of the turbocharger. In this case, qualified A14NET diagnostics and subsequent repairs are required.
There is a pronounced whistle under load.Such a whistle is typical for damage to the cooling pump, which requires replacement.


At the same time, this engine of the Opel Astra car is not without its drawbacks. Due to its high load, it is characterized by increased demands on the quality of the oil used. In this case, the car owner is recommended to change the oil every 10,000 kilometers. Among other things, this power unit does not tolerate aggressive driving style, which can lead to damage to the turbine and piston burnout.


There are various tuning programs for this power unit that allow you to raise the engine power to 180 horsepower or more. In this case, complex work is carried out, which involves dismantling the catalyst, flashing the control electronics, or changing the pressure in the standard turbine.

In each specific case, it is necessary to choose the right one using the A14NET tuning program, which will eliminate the breakdown of the power unit and the deterioration of engine reliability indicators.


The Opel Astra is a family of economical compact cars that are very popular with customers today. About a dozen different engines were installed on these car models, which are distinguished by their reliability and durability.

The Opel Astra A14NET engine is a modern engine that appeared in 2010 and is still being produced today. The A16LET modification is also very popular, which is distinguished by its working volume and power indicator.

Mitsubishi 6G72 3.0 Best Specs, Problems & Reliability

In the eighties of the last century, the Japanese company Mitsubishi introduced a new family of six-cylinder injection gasoline engines 6G72, which were initially presented with two (6G71) and three-liter (6G72) power units.

Mitsubishi 6G72 3.0 Engine Review Specs Problems Reliability

Soon, the offer was expanded with three more engines, which were widely used on various cars of this Japanese automaker and were installed on American cars under license. It is a V-shaped cast iron six-cylinder engine that has a 60-degree camber. The cylinder head of the 6G72 engine was made of aluminum, which made it possible to significantly lighten this power unit, improving the temperature resistance.

Popular was the 3.5-liter 6G74 engine, which was an exact replica of the base model with bored cylinders. It was easy to maintain, reliable and economical. He also had a timing belt drive and required regular replacement of this mechanism every 70-90 thousand kilometers. 6G74 engines were installed on American SUVs and a number of top-end Pajero modifications.

Initially, this engine and 6G74 engines had two valves per cylinder, but in the mid-nineties, a restyling was carried out, after which the engine received a new cylinder head and a valve mechanism, which already had four valves for each cylinder. Due to a similar layout, as well as an injection injection system, the engine power has significantly increased. Both naturally aspirated versions with a power of 141 horsepower and turbocharged engines (modifications 6G72TT), which developed 324 horsepower, were offered.

Despite their impressive volume, 6G74 engines are economical and consumed 15-17 liters of gasoline in the city on large SUVs and large models from Dodge.

We also note the compliance with environmental standards Euro 4. The 6G74 engine, unlike most other power units produced in the eighties and nineties of the last century, was originally developed for use on 95 gasoline. Therefore, attempts to fill 6G74 with low-octane fuel invariably led to breakdowns of this power unit.

Maintenance of the 6G74 engine is not difficult and involves regular oil changes and work with the timing drive.

6G72 3.0 Specifications

The 6G72 engine has the following technical characteristics:

Years of release1986 - 2008
The weight200 kg
Cylinder block materialCast iron
Motor power systemInjector
Cylinder arrangement typeV-shaped
Engine displacement2972 cm 3
Engine power143 l. from. 5000 rpm
Number of cylinders6
Number of valves12
Piston stroke76 mm
Cylinder diameter91.1 mm
Compression ratio8.9 atm
Torque168 Nm / 2500 rpm
Environmental standardsEURO 4
Fuel92 gasoline
Fuel consumption13.7 l / 100 km
Oil type5W-30
Oil volume in crankcase4.6 liters
When replacing the casting4.3 liters
Oil change is carried outEvery 15,000 km
Motor resource-250, According to the plant
-400, 0n practice

The 6G72 engine was installed on:

  • Mitsubishi Galant
  • Eclipse III
  • Pajero / Montero
  • Dodge Daytona
  • Ram 50
  • Chrysler LeBaron
  • Sebring Coupe
  • And a number of other cars popular at the end of the last century.

6G72 Features

Note that this Japanese automaker has constantly improved and upgraded its 6G72 engines. In fact, changes were made to its design every year, which explains so many varieties of these engines. All of them have proven to be quite reliable and easy to operate.

The 6G72 engine had a belt drive of the gas distribution mechanism, while the design of the power unit is such that when the belt breaks, the piston collides with the valves, forcing expensive repairs. Note that such service work to replace the timing belt is performed every 90,000 kilometers.

6G72 3.0 Problems & Reliability

In general, the 6G74 engine turned out to be quite successful, with the exception of high oil consumption, which is often noted on older cars. This is due to problems with the valve stem seals, which on 6G74 must be replaced at the first sign of oil consumption.

The appearance of extraneous knocks in the engine.The problems, with a high degree of probability, lie in the hydraulic lifters. It is necessary to replace them, for which the valve cover is removed. In rare cases, the appearance of knocking in 6G72 is due to the rotation of the connecting rod bushings. In the latter case, expensive overhaul is required.
The engine speed is floating.It is recommended to check the idle speed control. Its adjustment or replacement is not difficult. Also, if there are such floating rpm, the throttle valve should be inspected and, if possible, cleaned.
Interruptions in engine operation are noted.There may be several reasons for this. First of all, replace the spark plugs, which can quickly fail due to the use of low-quality fuel. In rare cases, it is necessary to remove the intake manifold and carry out its grinding.
The engine has lost its power.It is necessary to open the motor after checking the compression. Typically, a loss of power problem results in major overhauls and replacement of a number of major components.

6G72 Tuning

Today there are many different tuning programs for this 6G72 engine:

  • So, chip tuning is possible when the firmware of the control electronics is changed. You can use a new control unit, which will give you about 20 extra horsepower. On sale you can find dozens of different chip tuning options for this 6G72 engine.
  • Extreme tuning options include turbocharging and front-mounted intercoolers. In this case, the fuel pump is replaced, a new boost controller and a number of other elements are installed. In this case, you must use the appropriate kit kits. Such work allows, at a turbine pressure of 1 bar, to raise the power of this engine to a level of 400 horsepower.


The 6G72 engine is a powerful six-cylinder power unit that appeared in 1986 and was able to hold out on the assembly line until 2008.

This engine has proven itself to be extremely reliable, economical and easy to maintain. Thanks to its excellent performance characteristics, this power unit enjoys well-deserved love among car owners.

Bugatti W16 Engine Best Review Specs, Problems & Reliability

In general, the W16 series engine consists of two piston groups from VR-shaped 8-cylinder engines, which are located at an angle of 72 degrees in relation to each other. Thus, a power unit with 4 rows of cylinders is obtained.

Bugatti W16 Engine Review Specs Problems Reliability

However, these engines are practically not found in the automotive industry. The exception is Bugatti Automobiles SAS, which manufactures and installs W16 engines. In its Bugatti Veyron vehicles. The engines are assembled in Germany. The number of parts in the motor is 3500 units.

W16 Specifications

Engine displacement7993cm3
Power (at 6000 rpm.)From 1001hp
Maximum torque (at 2200 rpm.)1250Nm
Compression ratio9
Arrangement of cylindersW-shaped (4x4)
Number of cylinders16
Number of valves per cylinder4pcs
The total number of valves64pcs
Cylinder diameter86mm
Piston stroke86.1mm
Supply systemDistributed injection
Gas distribution mechanism (4 sets)SOHC + turbine MPE MP 70
Boost pressure, bar1.24
Cylinder sequence1-14-9-4-7-12-15-6-13-8-3-16-11-2-5-10
FuelUnleaded gasoline AI-98
Fuel consumption, l / 100 km (city / highway / mixed)41.9 / 15.6 / 24.9
Weight, kg, no more400
Lubrication systemClosed loop with dry sump

The W16 engine was installed on production cars:

  • Bugatti Veyron 16.4
  • Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Grand Sport
  • Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Super Sport
  • Bugatti Veryron 16.4 Grand Sport Vitesse

The power unit with an W16 engine capacity of about 8 liters is equipped with four 16-valve gas distribution mechanisms, each containing one camshaft and a turbocharger. Due to this design, the engine is capable of developing high power (up to 1040 hp), however, in order to avoid misunderstandings, the engine manufacturer declared the power of from 1001 hp.

The operation of the connecting rod-piston groups of such power units is negatively affected by the influence of inertial moments. The developers of the W16 engine solved this problem by:

  • Increasing the camber angle between adjacent cylinder blocks to 90 degrees
  • Reducing the piston speed to 17.2 m / s

The increase in the camber angle led to an increase in the overall dimensions of the W16 engine as a whole, which ultimately amounted to 710×767 mm.

The turbocharged 8-liter engine is not too “resourceful” – full power is reached at 6500 rpm. In this case, the car accelerates to speed:

  • 100 km / h – in 2.5 seconds
  • 200 km / h – in 7.3 seconds
  • 300 km / h – 16.7 seconds

Optimum W16 engine performance at different speeds is ensured by a specially developed electronic control circuit for the gas distribution mechanism (timing), which continuously changes the valve timing. A separate massive radiator is used to cool the timing belt, which heats up strongly during fuel combustion (1.33 l / min).

Cooling System

Powerful W16 engine get very hot when driving at high speeds. Therefore, much attention has been paid to the development of their cooling systems. The W16 engine is equipped with a dual-circuit liquid cooling system, which includes:

  1. Three radiators of the main cooling circuit, located at the front of the car, where about 40 liters of coolant are poured. They keep the motor at normal temperature during normal operation.
  2. The additional cooling circuit begins to work in cases when the coolant temperature exceeds the permissible value and the engine can overheat. This happens, for example, when the car is in a traffic jam. This cooling circuit holds approximately 20 liters of coolant and has a separate water pump.
  3. In addition, the power unit is additionally equipped with small radiators through which not only coolant circulates, but also engine and transmission oil. These radiators are cooled by air currents that flow through a system of complex outdoor air flow patterns.

In general, a large number of air intakes are structurally provided in the body, designed for effective cooling of the W16 engine. They largely determine the exotic exterior of the car.

W16 Maintenance

Powertrains of the Bugatti Veyron, like all reciprocating internal combustion engines, require regular maintenance. The list of routine maintenance carried out in this case is no different from the standard list:

  • Engine oil change
  • Replacement of filters
  • Control over the level of engine oil in the oil pan
  • Monitoring the coolant level

The only difference between the maintenance of this engine and the usual one is the exorbitant price. The engine must be serviced only by an official service, otherwise the warranty will be lost.

The simplest operation, which is changing the engine oil, will cost the owner $ 21,000. If we add here the replacement of filters and other consumables and components, carried out during the year, then the annual maintenance (excluding the cost of work) will cost the owner 132,000 US dollars.

W16 Repairs

If there are malfunctions in the operation of the W16 power unit, it is thoroughly diagnosed at an official car service.

After a careful visual inspection, specially trained mechanics connect the engine to special technological equipment, according to the indications of which the general condition of the engine is determined.

In addition to the input computer diagnostics, other methods are used. For example, an endoscope is used to assess the internal state of a honed cylinder surface. However, all types of input diagnostics are preliminary, since given the structural complexity of the motor, the final diagnostics of the engine is possible only after its dismantling.

Dismantling and repairing a W16 engine requires the use of special tools and high quality parts.

W16 Tuning

There are two ways to increase the power of the torque value of the Bugatti Veyron W16 engine:

Chip Tuning

Specialists of specialized tuning studios are able, by changing the settings of the electronic engine control unit (ECM), to provide an increase in engine power up to 1150 hp. from. In this case, the amount of torque will be 1350 Nm. The cost of such a chip tuning will be at least 250 thousand rubles.

Mechanical Tuning

It is possible to significantly increase the engine power if, instead of the standard units, you install:

  • Intercoolers with higher performance
  • More powerful turbochargers
  • In addition, the exhaust system needs to be upgraded

After completing these works and correspondingly changing the ECM parameters: the engine power will increase to 1200 hp the torque will reach 1500 Nm.


Hypercar Bugatti Veyron with W16 engine is a unique car produced by the French car manufacturer Bugatti Automobiles SAS Founded in 1909, the company is now part of the famous German automobile concern Volkswagen AG and specializes in the production of luxury cars.

The Bugatti Veyron hypercar, which is considered the fastest production car in the world, was produced for 10 years (2005-2015). During this time, 450 cars were produced. Under the hood of this unique car, a 16-cylinder W16 engine is installed, with which the hypercar reaches speeds of up to 407 km / h.

Mazda R2 2.2 Diesel Best Specs, Problems & Reliability

The Mazda R2 2.2 diesel engine is a classic 4-stroke vortex-chamber diesel power unit, 4 cylinders of which are located in one row, is considered a fairly reliable, but somewhat noisy engine.

Mazda R2 2.2 Engine Review Specs Problems Reliability

The ONS type gas distribution mechanism with an overhead camshaft and a direct drive of 8 valves (2 valves per cylinder) is assembled in the cylinder head. The thermal clearances of the valves are adjusted with washers.

The gas distribution mechanism and the high-pressure fuel pump (injection pump) are driven by a toothed belt. In this case, the R2 2.2 diesel engine can be equipped with a plunger injection pump of the Diesel Kiki type of distribution type, which is controlled by both electronics (Kia Sportage) and mechanics (Mazda Bongo).

R2 2.2 Engine Specifications

Cylinder volume2184cc
Number of cylinders4
Number of valves per cylinder2
Maximum power (at 4000 rpm)From 64hp
Maximum torque (at 2000 rpm)140nm
Cylinder diameter86mm
Piston stroke94mm
Compression ratio22.9
Fuel supply systemInjection pump (mechanical or electrical)
Gas distribution mechanismОНС
Cylinder operation diagram1-3-4-2
Engine oil5W-30
Lubrication systemCombined
Engine oil volume-7.1L Dry engine
-5L Without changing the oil filter
-6.4L With replacement of the oil filter
FuelDiesel Fuel

The engine was installed on Mazda Bongo, Ford Econovan, Mazda E-series, Ford Spectron, Nissan Vanette, Kia Wide Bongo, Ford j80, Mitsubishi Delica cars.

Fuel Supply System

The main task that must be solved by the developers of any diesel engine is to supply a strictly defined amount of fuel to its cylinders. It is solved with the help of a high-pressure fuel pump, which is the main element not only of the fuel supply system, but of the entire power unit as a whole.

The high-pressure fuel pump consists of:

  • Fuel priming pump
  • Plunger device
  • Solenoid valve for shutting off the fuel supply
  • Pressure reducing valve
  • Drainage fitting
  • Fuel injection timing regulator
  • All-mode fuel regulator

Diesel fuel is supplied to the high-pressure fuel pump by means of a fuel pump. At the same time, the volume of the supplied fuel significantly exceeds the amount required for the normal operation of the engine.

The plunger pair of the injection pump regulates the amount of fuel and distributes it to the engine cylinders according to the diagram (see the table), and the excess fuel is drained back into the tank through the drain fitting.

Stable engine operation in all modes is ensured by an all-mode fuel supply regulator, which limits the maximum number of crankshaft revolutions depending on the position of the gas pedal (determined by the driver). Depending on the number of revolutions of the crankshaft, the injection timing regulator changes the moment of fuel supply to the engine cylinders.

The solenoid valve is connected to the ignition lock and when the key is turned to the “Off” position. cuts off the fuel supply to the plunger pair of the injection pump. At present, taking into account all the stricter environmental requirements, distribution injection pumps are equipped with electronic control units, which provide accurate adjustment of the dosage of fuel entering the cylinders.

This not only reduces the toxicity of the exhaust, but also increases the power and smoothness of the engine. They also regulate the operation of the EGR valve (exhaust gas recirculation).

R2 Engine Maintenance

Maintenance of R2 2.2 diesel engines is reduced to regular replacement of consumables (oil, filters, belts, etc.), as well as regular checks of the main elements that ensure the trouble-free operation of the power unit. Wherein:

  • Replacement of engine oil and oil filter is carried out every 10,000 km mileage
  • Fuel and air filters are changed after every 20,000 km of distance traveled
  • The coolant is drained and replaced with a new one at least once every two years
  • The timing belt must be replaced every 80,000 km

In addition, it is necessary to regularly check the condition (after a certain number of kilometers of run):

  • Timing belt – 30,000 km
  • Valve clearances of cylinders – 20,000 km
  • Hoses and branch pipes of fuel supply and cooling systems – 10,000 km
  • Exhaust gas recirculation systems – 40,000 km
  • Nozzles – 40,000 km

If defects are identified, they must be eliminated.

R2 2.2 Engine Problems & Reliability

Typical problems of the Mazda R2 2.2 diesel engine are summarized in the table.

The engine does not start.-The fuel priming pump is out of order
-Faulty injection pump
-Broken injectors
-The glow plugs are out of order
The engine does not develop enough power.-An insufficient dose of fuel is injected into the cylinders
-The atomizer is damaged
-Fuel leak
Unstable operation of the power unit.-The parts of the gas distribution mechanism are worn out
- Air has entered the fuel supply system
-The injector spring burst.
Extraneous knocks in the engine.-Early fuel injection
-Wear of parts of the connecting rod and piston group
-The amount of compression does not correspond to the specified values
Black smoke comes out of the muffler.-Late fuel injection
-The needle is stuck in the sprayer
-The injector spring burst
-Low compression level

R2 Engine Tuning

Mazda R2 2.2 diesel engines have a number of advantages over gasoline counterparts. They are more economical and not picky about fuel quality. However, one of the significant disadvantages of diesel engines, compared to gasoline ones, is their low power. Therefore, the question of increasing the latter sooner or later becomes before each owner of a car with a diesel power unit.

Carrying out work related to increasing the power of the diesel engine is associated with a fairly large volume of work and their considerable cost. In addition, it is necessary to have experience in performing complex metalworking and mechanical assembly works.

Therefore, to perform them with 100% certainty of obtaining the expected result, it is best to contact specialized tuning studios that can offer various ways to increase the power of diesel engines.

In particular, for power units of the Mazda Motor Corporation it is offered:

Chip Tuning

Chip tuning (changing the power characteristics of the engine without mechanical intervention) is possible by installing a special controller (CHIP), which will change the pressure characteristics in the diesel fuel supply system. With the help of chip tuning, the engine power can be increased by about 30%.

Installing The Turbocharger

Turbocharging is considered one of the most efficient ways to increase the power of a diesel engine. However, it is impossible to do without the modification of the motor design.


Following a long-standing tradition, many Japanese automotive companies aggregate their vehicles with powertrains of their own production. Such a well-known company as Mazda Motor Corporation is no exception.

At the same time, the range of manufactured motors includes gasoline, diesel and rotary engines. Among the diesel engines produced by the company, the most common is the r2 diesel engine, which was installed on the Mazda Bongo van from 1983 to 1999.

The popular Mazda Bongo minibus served as a prototype for a number of similar models produced and sold in South Korea, Australia, the United States and other countries. Within the framework of licensing agreements, R2 2.2 diesel engines were also installed on them.

Best Used Minivan And Family Cars Under $7000

There is no more functional and family type of body than a minivan. Even 10 years ago, almost every self-respecting manufacturer had in its offer at least one minivan, most often compact. What are the best used minivans out there? Check the reviews in this article.

Best Minivan Family Cars Under 7000

There were also city models with increased transport possibilities (eg Renault Modus) and “traditional” large vans that could comfortably carry 7-8 people. While the latter still have an established position in the model range, urban and compact minivans are quickly disappearing from the price lists, being replaced by SUVs and crossovers.

Some models remain on offer under their old names, but already designed according to current trends, such as Renault Scenic and Espacethey are now crossovers and their greatest advantage, which is spaciousness, suffered. A small part of them can still be bought in showrooms, incl. Volkswagen Touran and Citroen C4 Spacetourer .

What are the benefits of buying a minivan?

The minivan body has many benefits for the user. Compact minivans are usually around 4.5 meters long , which is less than mid-range cars. This also allows for convenient maneuvering around the city, which is additionally supported by excellent glazing and an elevated position behind the wheel.

Most minivans have three separate seats in the rear, which can be folded, moved or the backrest adjusted separately. The frequent lack of a central tunnel increases the comfort of a third person ride. There is no shortage of functional solutions, such as the ubiquitous storage compartments and cup holders as well as tables in the backrests.

In the mostly spacious and regular luggage compartment, two additional seats could optionally be placed (some models were standard), but from experience it is worth using them only in emergency. However, there is no shortage of people willing to buy 7-seater compact minivans and they sell better than the 5-seater varieties, even if it results in a reduced luggage space.

Best Used Minivans & Family Car Under $7000

  • Chevrolet Orlando
  • Citroen Grand C4 Picasso
  • Ford Grand C-Max
  • Mazda 5
  • Opel Zafira
  • Peugeot 5008
  • Renault Grand Scenic
  • Seat Altea XL
  • Toyota Verso
  • Volkswagen Touran

Chevrolet Orlando

By far the longest minivan in this comparison – 465 cm long and 276 cm wheelbase make an impression in this class. Orlando is also the only featured car that can carry 7 people comfortably.

However, it stands out from the rivals in the level of finish inside and a traditional couch in the back: separate seats are much better for minivans. In better versions (LT, LTZ) you can count on surprisingly good equipment, the cheapest ones (LS, we will recognize it by the black handles) may not even have air conditioning.

Chevrolet offered in Orlando only two gasoline engines: 1.8 and 1.4 Turbo . Both generate 140 HP and you could buy them with a factory gas installation (valve seats were reinforced on 1.8 LPG). Diesel has a capacity of 2 liters and two power versions: 130 and 163 hp.

If we plan to drive in the city, let’s set aside some money to regenerate the DPF filter or turbocharger. In any Orlando, the manual transmission “gave up” fairly early. There are predominantly corosion centers on the tailgate.

  • Years of production: 2010-2018
  • Prices: From $6500
  • For $6500 you can buy year: 2010-2012

Citroen Grand C4 Picasso

The assumed budget will allow the purchase of the C4 Picasso after facelift (2009), but still with a high mileage (often 200,000 km). You can choose from good offers up to $5200. Citroen has created a perfectly perfect minivan: big inside, full of interesting solutions and attractively styled.

The extended Grand version is distinguished by a vertically extending rear window. Under the hatch there is a 576-liter trunk (in the “short”: 500 liters) and two fold-flat seats: there is not as much space there as in Orlando, but the situation is still acceptable.

Given the overall durability of this model, things are not so rosy. A common problem in the C4 Picasso is the electrics : lighting breaks, voltage regulator, electric handbrake. The safest choice when it comes to engines will be the 2.0 HDi or the old 1.8 16V and 2.0 16V LPG engines.

Each of the 1.6 units offered here has its weak point. VTi / THP burns oil and has a troublesome chain timing, in the 1.6 HDi, in turn, there are also problems with turbochargers. Besides, the base diesels are simply too weak to power this nearly 4.6-meter minivan.

  • Years of production: 2006-2013
  • Prices: From $2600
  • For $6600 you can buy year: 2011-2012

Ford Grand C-Max

The production of the Ford C-Max is just coming to an end: the successor, if it appears, will certainly no longer be a minivan. This fact will certainly drive the prices of used cars down, because in the assumed budget we can oscillate in the oldest cars for now.

Like the Citroen C4 Picasso, there were two versions to choose from: the standard C-Max and the extended Grand C-Max. The curiosities of this model include sliding rear doors on both sides and unusual equipment, such as a heated windshield. Cockpit: full of buttons and well assembled.

Ford C-Max / Grand C-Max was available from the beginning with new engines from the EcoBoost family. Initially, it was 1.6 EB , later they were replaced by 1.5 EB with similar parameters. The naturally aspirated 1.6 Ti-VCT petrol engines were replaced by the new 1.0 EcoBoost. Despite their initial fears, they handle the C-Max quite well, although, of course, a powerful turbo diesel is much better for a seven-seat minivan.

We recommend 2.0 TDCi, and 1.6 TDCi is enough for a “short” C-Max. Watch out for the Powershift dual-clutch transmissions with a risk of failure. Other glitches? Worn shock absorbers and damaged chassis components – the effect of low ground clearance.

  • Years of production: from 2010
  • Prices: From $5000
  • For $6500 you can buy year: 2011-2012

Mazda 5

The Mazda compact minivan is distinguished, like the Ford, by the sliding side doors on both sides and a narrow middle seat in the second row, which makes Mazda 5 a rather 6-seater car. This statement is also exaggerated, because only children will sit on additional seats in the trunk. The production of the “Five” ended in 2015 without introducing the successor.

The second generation of Mazda 5 lacked a powerful turbo diesel. On the one hand, this is good, because the problematic 2.0 MZR-CD engines are gone. On the other – bad, because the only diesel, 1.6 MZ-CD, generates only 115 HP. It is a redesigned Ford unit, also used in the previously described C-Max. In it, attention should be paid to providing conditions for periodic burnout of the particulate filter.

Another common problem: leaking injector washers. Gasoline engines do not tolerate LPG very much (2.0 has direct fuel injection ). Despite the relatively young age of the Mazda 5, point corrosion is slowly starting to attack. It is worth considering preserving the chassis.

  • Years of production: 2010-2015
  • Prices: From $5700
  • For $6500 you can buy year: 2011-2012

Opel Zafira

The Zafira engines can generally be recommended, although they are not without their drawbacks. Typically for Opel from this period, they struggle with stuck EGR valves and problematic diesel particulate filters (optional on diesels).

The age and mileage of many Zafira leave their mark on the condition of turbochargers and dual mass flywheels. Gasoline units can be powered with gas provided hydraulic valve lash compensation is present. Unfortunately, they are not free from excessive oil consumption (even 1L / 1000 km).

  • Years of production: 2005-2014
  • Prices: From $2100
  • For $6500 you can buy year: 2009-2010

Peugeot 5008

A proposal for people expecting something more than spaciousness from a minivan. The Peugeot 5008 looks decent (also inside), can carry 7 people comfortably, and has exceptionally successful diesel engines. The range is opened by a too weak 1.6 HDi: the optimum is 2.0 HDi, preferably in combination with a manual gearbox.

A Peugeot minivan configured in this way should not cause any mechanical problems. Avoid taking oil from THP engines with a non-permanent timing chain: the red light should come on after seeing the much lower prices of the 5008 gasoline, and there are definitely less of them than the diesels.

The list of Peugeot 5008 equipment does not lack curiosities such as a head-up display or an electric handbrake. Unfortunately, the on-board electronics like to “live their lives”: users complain about hanging navigation or problems with the radio. In addition, in intensively used vehicles the suspension knocks and it is necessary to replace the brake discs frequently.

  • Years of production: 2009-2016
  • Prices: From $4600
  • For $6500 you can buy year: 2010-2011

Renault Grand Scenic

The first two generations of Renault Scenica were groundbreaking in their own right. The third incarnation is simply correct, if not to say – a successful minivan, not distinguished by anything special from its competitors. Again, two versions (Scenic and Grand Scenic) differ in length and wheelbase.

The Scenica engine range consists of naturally aspirated petrol units (1.6 and 2.0), turbocharged petrol units (1.2 TCe and 1.4 TCe) and a full range of diesels: from the old and not-so-recommended 1.5 / 1.9 dCi to the modern, durable and dynamic 1.6 / 2.0 dCi.

We advise you to look for the latter: in the budget of $6500 you can already “hunt” Scenica 1.6 dCi after the first facelift from 2012 (the second: a year later). It will be a more sensible choice than 1.5 / 1.9 dCi, because even after many corrections they can hardly be called completely failure-free. Gasoline Scenics accept LPG, except for 1.2 TCe (direct fuel injection) introduced in 2012.

  • Years of production: 2009-2017
  • Prices: From $4600
  • For $6500 you can buy year: 2010-2012

Seat Altea XL

Seat Altea XL is 19 cm long in relation to the “regular” Altea. The wheelbase remained the same: 257 cm. This is not much for a compact minivan, and perhaps this is one of the reasons Seat decided not to produce the Altea XL in a seven-seater variant. In return, the user receives a spacious and deep luggage compartment with a capacity of 532 l.

The Altea is a bit out of its rivals in terms of practicality (it does not even have a sliding couch), but the design can be undoubtedly considered its strong point.

Unfortunately, the Seat Altea was produced at a time when the Volkswagen concern was struggling with numerous failures of its TSI and TDI engines. The first of them consumed huge amounts of oil (the prescription may be to replace the rings), in the 2.0 TDI, in turn, the heads broke and the unit injectors failed.

The engines have been improved over the years and the 2.0 TDI with common rail (from 2009) is recommendable , as is the 1.6 TDI introduced at that time . If you want a petrol Altea, you have two options: look for a durable but sluggish 1.6 8V, or look for a TSI from a younger age or with a documented repair.

  • Years of production: 2006-2015
  • Prices: From $3400
  • For $6500 you can buy year: 2010-2011

Toyota Verso

The Toyota Verso has replaced three minivans produced so far: the Yaris Verso, Corolla Verso and Avensis Verso. The model was to combine the advantages of all three in one: it was only partially successful, because the Verso actually in a fairly small body (444 cm long) provides a huge amount of space, but only for 5 people.

The driving conditions on the 6th and 7th seats are extreme, unless the second row seat is moved forward or the backrest tilts down. The quality of workmanship of the Toyota minivan is disappointing: the plastics are quickly scratched not only in the cockpit, but also in the trunk.

Toyota Verso with diesel engines prevail in the aftermarket. They are also cheaper. Reason: not the best reviews about them. Potential buyers try to avoid the early 2.0 D-4D and all 2.2 D-4Ds, as there is a risk of microcracking on the engine block (the result: loss of coolant), and in the 2.2 D-CAT there are also problems with the soot filter.

After the facelift, a revised 2.0 D-4D with 124 HP appeared, as well as a diesel from BMW (1.6 D-4D / 112 HP). Valvematic gasoline engines are recommendable for durability, although they only provide average performance.

  • Years of production: 2009-2018
  • Prices: From $5700
  • For $6500 you can buy year: 2009-2010

Volkswagen Touran

The first incarnation of the Touran was produced for 12 years, in the meantime carrying out two significant upgrades to the front of the body. Volkswagen also juggled engines used in different years. Initially, the gasoline range included the good old 1.6 8V and 1.6 / 2.0 FSI, then the era of 1.4 TSI units came and problems with the supercharging system and chain timing (1.4 TSI Twincharger) began.

The newer varieties, produced since 2010, are considered more durable. Touran with diesel? Either early 1.9 TDI (up to 2005) or newer with revised 2.0 TDI CR or 1.6 TDI units.

Volkswagen Touran is not the largest car in this list, but it is safe to say that it is one of the most spacious – all thanks to the body with simple shapes. There is no shortage of a well-thought-out folding system for armchairs and amenities for the family.

You can count on high quality interior assembly and good overall durability. The key issue is choosing the right engine and preferably a manual gearbox ( DSGs often require intervention at high mileage).

  • Years of production: 2003-2015
  • Prices: From $2100
  • For $6500 you can buy year: 2008-2009


About 10 years ago there was a real flood of new models and the next generation of minivans already produced. They did not cost little back then, but today a used minivan from around 2010 can be bought for up to $7000.

Some of the youngest cars, such as the Chevrolet Orlando, cost more, so we adopted a budget of $7000. Thats the 10 most popular second-hand compact minivans.

1.5 dCi K9K Engine Review Problems And Reliability

The extremely popular 1.5 dCi diesel engine has been installed in a wide variety of cars for almost 20 years. Praised for its very low fuel consumption, it is also known for a disadvantage – accelerated wear of the bushings. In practice, it may seize up, but contrary to appearances, it is not a big problem. It helps to replace the sockets once in a while.

1.5 dCi Engine Review Problems And Reliability

The 1.5 dCi engine (internal designation K9K) debuted in 2001 in the Renault Clio II. The small diesel engine quickly became a hit. It was placed under the hood of compact cars, and with time also in the Kangoo kombivan, Lodgy minivan or the large Laguna III and then Talisman.

It drives not only French cars, but also date, Nissan, Suzuki for some time, and with time it has caught on in Mercedes or Japanese Infiniti. Although a more powerful successor appeared – 1.6 dCi (R9M) – and then another – 1.7 dCi (R9N) – it was not withdrawn from the offer in many models.

Which ones are worth for buying 1.5 dCi engine?

Several dozen variants of the 1.5 dCi engine and car models that were equipped with it give a huge selection and sometimes a dilemma. Although I believe that the 1.5 dCi is a good choice overall, in my opinion not every car model. Here is a list of the most popular with a rough application assessment.

  • Dacia Logan / Sandero – a good source of propulsion, but due to the low price of the car (and similar expectations in terms of operation), I think a 1.6 MPI or 1.2 MPI gasoline engine with a gas system is better.
  • Dacia Duster – a very good source of propulsion, often 4 × 4.
  • Dacia Lodgy / Dokker – the only drive that combines dynamics with economy.
  • Infiniti Q30 – The 109hp OM 607 engine comes from Mercedes, which took it from Renault. Very good drive, although the 2.2 diesel fits better the image of the car.
  • Mercedes Class A and CLA – I especially recommend the A 180 d variant (OM 607 engine).
  • Nissan Micra – a very good, super-economical and dynamic drive.
  • Nissan Almera II – the most emergency version of this engine with a low power of 82 HP was used here – it is better to choose a petrol drive.
  • Nissan Juke – a very good, super-economical and dynamic drive.
  • Nissan Qasqai – a very good, economical drive with average performance.
  • Renault Clio – a very good, super-economical drive.
  • Renault Megane – a suitable drive in each model generation (the most malfunctioning in Megane II).
  • Renault Laguna III and Talisman – 110 HP engine is too weak for these cars and can wear out quickly. 2.0 dCi and 1.6 dCi are better choices, respectively.
  • Renault Kadjar – a very good drive.
  • Renault Kangoo – if the car is not overloaded, it’s a good drive.
  • Suzuki Jimny – choose the engine marked DDiS with 86 HP, offered in 2005–2009.

1.5 dCi Problems & Reliability

  • The 1.5 dCi engine has been praised from the very beginning for good dynamics and low fuel consumption, already after 60,000 km struggled with serious problems. Due to Delphi’s delicate injectors, it was not resistant to lower quality fuel. However, after driving 100–150 thousand km revealed a much more serious problem – quickly wearing out bearings of the crankshaft. Anyway, the same thing happened with 1.9 dCi engine users.
  • As the mechanics gained a little more experience, the indirect cause of the bearing problems was found – long oil intervals. Users who have serviced their cars in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations, i.e. every 30,000 km, usually after 4–5 services they had an engine with seized bushings.
  • Those who did not meet the manufacturer’s recommendations, traveled up to 300,000 km without any problems. Earlier, the injectors, turbocharger and EGR valve were worn out. Over time, it was also discovered that another culprit was an ineffective chain-driven oil pump.
  • In many guides you will read that the 1.5 dCi engine is risky due to the aforementioned problem with the bearings.
  • In my opinion, this is the smallest problem, because higher costs can be brought, for example, by replacing Siemens injectors (used a few years after the engine was launched). Despite the fact that their durability is estimated at about 300,000 km, the new ones cost from $180 to even $312 per piece. Therefore, the replacement of the set may cost even more than $1300. Of course, the prices do not differ completely from other diesel engines with piezoelectric injectors .
  • Other faults are, for example, the EGR valve – prices from about $51 to even $155. Turbochargers are relatively durable and can be bought cheaply – below $260, which of course does not mean that you will exchange it for that amount.
  • Parts prices depend on the year of the 1.5 dCi engine and the level of technical advancement in exhaust gas treatment. The principle is simple – the higher the Euro standard it meets, the more expensive its repairs will be. In view of all this, replacing the bushings is really the smallest problem.

When to change oil and timing gear?

The manufacturer recommends replacing the timing belt every 120,000 km in units produced by 2010 and every 160,000 km in newer constructions. Mechanics familiar with this engine recommend replacing the valve timing every 80,000-100,000 km. There are situations when the belt is broken and the 1.5 dCi engine is damaged.

A good practice is prophylactic replacement of the bushings during the second timing gear replacement, that is every 160,000–200,000 km. Despite the use of shorter oil intervals, e.g. every 15,000-20,000 km, they may already be worn enough to be replaced. And here someone can ask the right question: is it not an exaggeration?

It turns out not. Just as it is not an exaggeration to replace the bushings at the first service after purchasing a car with a mileage greater than 100,000 km , because it is not known how the engine was operated.

How much does it cost to replace bushings in a 1.5 dCi engine?

As the 1.5 dCi engine appeared in several dozen versions, and we write here generally, I will not give you a single price. The bushings, on the other hand, cost from $16 (!) To about $78 for parts purchased at an authorized service station. In a specialized workshop, the cost of replacing the bushings with parts is about $130-$155. To this, add engine oil and possibly seals where leaks appear.

A mechanic who does not deal with this on a daily basis, and you entrust him with such an activity, may demand a slightly higher amount out of caution. Generally, in the case of even the most expensive variant, the cost of replacing the bushings should not exceed $260.

I have even better news when it comes to costs. There are ready-made kits for the overhaul of the lower part of the engine on the market for up to $390 – depending on its variant. It is not only a set of bushings, but also connecting rods and crankshaft, as well as seals and often an oil pump.

You need to know that if the worn bushings have damaged the working surface of the shaft, it should be regenerated or replaced. We are talking about parts or activities that in the case of many other diesels will cost $780-$1040!

When replacing the bushings, it is worth adding about $52-$65 to replace the oil pump, also completely prophylactically. It can cause low oil pressure, but high enough not to be detected by sensors. If we add the replacement of the timing drive, the maximum bill from the workshop should be $520.

And we are talking not only about the old Clio II or the simple Dacia Logan, but for example the several-year-old Nissan Qashqai, Renault Talisman or the Mercedes A160d or A180d. Are you still saying that the 1.5 dCi diesel carries a lot of risk?

Is it worth replacing the bushings prophylactically?

Yes. With such low prices for both parts and services – it is quite easy for a skilled mechanic – it is really worth it. The cost of the order of $260-$520, depending on the scope of work and the year of the car, is not much. In many cars, the same timing gear replacement costs little less, and sometimes much more. And we are talking about full service and partial engine overhaul.

Basically, it is worth thinking about replacing the bushings when the car has never had them replaced or when more than 100,000 km has passed. Even in newer engines, the first signs of wear are observed with mileage of 100,000–120,000 km, that is when it comes to replacing the timing drive.

At a low cost, you can give the 1.5 dCi engine a new life and give yourself peace of mind for years, and all comments and malice regarding the failure rate of this unit can be acknowledged with a smile.


The key advantage of this 1.5 dCi engine is its low fuel consumption. In a compact car, results of the order of 4 l / 100 km on the road can be easily achieved. What’s more, the continuous development of this 1.5 dCi engine allowed to keep its exhaust gases in check, which meant that not only was it not withdrawn in favor of newer and larger structures, but even in some models it was kept as the only one. For example, a Mercedes C-Class is equipped with a 1.6 liter engine, but the A-Class is powered by a 1.5 engine.

The weakest version is 64 HP and 160 Nm, while the most powerful version develops 116 HP and 260 Nm . In the weaker versions, up to 90 HP, the dual mass wheel was often not used.

VW 1.9 TDI Engine Review Problems And Reliability

The Volkswagen 1.9 TDI engine itself has become an icon not only in the United States, but also in Germany. However, the ARL variant is very popular and you will recognize it by the red letters TDI. Today a few words about him and his weaker brother ASZ.

VW 1.9 TDI Engine Problems And Reliability

1.9 TDI engines can be divided into two types in terms of power supply – injection pump and unit injectors. The first ones were weaker, but after the introduction of unit injectors (PD), the power increased until 150 HP was obtained.

This was achieved in the unit with the ARL code and it was the most powerful engine with the 1.9 TDI code, commonly used in several models, although the BPX and BUK units were actually the most powerful, but they were only used in the Seat Ibiza Cupra.

1.9 TDI Red

You will recognize a car with an ARL engine by the fact that the 1.9 TDI marking is red. Of course, many users have bought such a designation for their 90 HP machine, just like BMW drivers bought more M badges than BMW M released cars from the factory.

On the other hand, the 130hp versions differed visually in that only the DI was red and the T remained silver. These are engines that in some models represent top versions, an example of which is the Škoda Fabia RS equipped with this unit (ASZ).

However, the color scheme is not a rule and the same Fabia with a 100 HP engine may also have a red DI. Besides, Volkswagen had different approaches to the color scheme since 2003, and eventually ended up with a silver TDI for each version.

Simple Design and Great Performance

Let’s focus on the 1.9 TDI ARL engine, which is the favorite of tuners dealing with tuning and diesel modifications. It made its debut with the ASZ in 2000, therefore it complies with the Euro 3 standard and does not have a DPF filter. It does have a catalytic converter and an EGR valve, as well as a turbocharger with variable geometry. Contrary to appearances, also a simple design compared to more modern units – e.g. an 8-valve head.

ARL factory develops a power of 150 hp and torque of 320 Nm. The 1.9 TDI ASZ engine is structurally similar, but with a factory power of 130 HP and a torque of 310 Nm. However, it has many common parts and solutions. It has outlived several years longer than the ARL, which ended in 2005. It was also used in more models.

Maximum power and torque are parameters given by the manufacturer, but in fact, a fully functional unit generates better.

  • Healthy, serial units usually show more on the dyno than the manufacturer says, and this is because the VAG group always communicates the minimum parameters that the engine should have and therefore there are often “bonuses” in the form of additional KM and Nm.
  • The fact is, if a motor has less power or torque, there is some kind of defect or wear. It can be both engine contamination and something more serious, such as insufficient injectors or turbochargers, or problems with the air intake.
  • Therefore, before buying a car, in which you see a project or plan its operation for several years, it is worth spending the time and those 51-64 USD on testing on a dynamometer.
  • In my opinion, when buying any car equipped with a TDI PD unit, you should be guided primarily by the technical condition of the engine.
  • Very quickly in a year or two, we can spend twice as much on repairing a breakdown than the car cost.

Expensive or Cheap?

Is the 1.9 TDI engine that expensive to repair? No. The comparison of the mechanics is good, because this car with 1.9 TDI can be bought for $520-$1290. As for an engine designed for high power and great performance – cars with a factory engine accelerate to 100 km / h in about 9 seconds – it is quite cheap to maintain and repair. However, the age of this construction and huge mileage do their job. Worse if we buy a neglected car.

That’s why it’s worth looking for art from a person who had a heart for a car. It is good to “overpay” the $520-$780. If the previous owner took care of regular service and fixed faults in the accessories, the unit will last 250,000-300,000 km. with factory parameters and on many factory parts. You should absolutely not be afraid of such mileage, but you can expect some expenses related to the wear of some components and elements.

The old generation injection system can be regenerated. Replacing the injectors costs about $520-$650 plus labor. Sometimes this is accompanied by a tandem pump, which is responsible for creating a vacuum and feeding fuel at the same time. The cost of a new one is $170, but we will pay a quarter of this amount for regeneration.

After purchase, it is necessary to replace the timing drive, complete. The belt with rollers, water pump and other elements to be replaced cost about $130 and you need to add the cost of replacement, which in 1.9 TDI engine is not a big challenge for a mechanic.

Unfortunately, during the revision of the top of the 1.9 TDI engine, it may turn out that you also need to replace the camshaft with shells and hydro tappets – $260 plus labor. If you do it comprehensively with timing gear replacement, you will pay less.

1.9 TDI Engine Problems & Reliability

  • A typical problems of 1.9 TDI engines are oil leaks, especially from under the valve cover.
  • It is made of plastic and due to high mileage and high temperature, it deforms after years. This causes oil leaks.
  • It also has an integrated crankcase ventilation valve, the so-called pneumothorax and appears only as an original product. It costs about $170.
  • Unfortunately, many 1.9 TDI users – not just the ARL variety – struggle with this “ridiculous” price by buying a used lid or a different ointment with sealants, which unfortunately does not solve the problem for long.

I am pleased with the low prices of parts, which are much more expensive in more modern engines. The AutoSpruce expert lists some examples in one breath:

  • N75 boost control valve (cost about $40)
  • Flow meter – about $117
  • Map sensor – about $26
  • Camshaft position sensor – approx $40
  • Shaft position sensor – approx $40

These are not large individual expenses, but if someone finds an engine in which these elements are still original, when they start to fail, the number of defects can irritate. Even the serious ones are not particularly expensive.

The turbocharger itself costs about $260 and here, of course, you should add at least twice as much for a comprehensive replacement. If you have any modifications planned, it is better to have a trusted person repaired. Usually, if there is an engine tuning planned, the turbo is replaced with a bigger one. It is similar with the intake system and intercooler.

Sometimes the gearbox also requires regeneration, which costs about $155. The clutch works with a dual-mass flywheel, but as befits a Volkswagen, replacements are available at a reasonable price – about $364 for a complete set with a clutch and clutch actuator.

How much can you get the 1.9 TDI ARL?

Of course, if the budget has no limits, the engine does not. Reasonable tuning closes with a power of approx 200 HP and a torque approaching 400 Nm. There is no need to interfere with any mechanical components. After modifying the boost, intake and exhaust, you can target over 200hp and over 400Nm.

  • The 1.9 TDI engine is very resistant to loads and high mileage.
  • The crank-piston system in 130 and 150 HP units can easily withstand modifications at the level of 300 HP and 550-600 Nm , thanks to the pistons and connecting rods reinforced in relation to the weaker versions.
  • The potential for tuning is so great that you often see cars with such a unit in parallel races, competing in the diesel class. Designs at the 250-300hp level are no exception, and the 500Nm torque does not make a big impression on the subject.

What car models with ARL can you buy?

The 1.9 TDI engine with this specific marking was installed in three models and it was quite short, but so many cars were sold that there is no problem with buying it after 15–20 years. It is worth noting that there is a choice not only between bodies. The Seat Leon and VW Golf combined ARL with four-wheel drive (optional). The Toledo is front wheel drive only.


An ASZ or other 150hp varieties are also a good solution. Basically, the ARL was only found in compact cars: VW Golf IV, Seat Leon I and Seat Toledo II. However, a version with the same power, but with the designation BTB, went to VW Sharan and Ford Galaxy.

The ASZ version appeared with 12 models from the Škoda Fabia RS to the Sharan. When buying, I would advise you to suggest the condition and actual, although difficult to determine, mileage rather than the marking. If the 1.9 TDI engine is 130 HP, it gives good performance and there is a potential to increase it.

I know from experience that the most noteworthy are cars that the previous owner has already owned for several years and has receipts or invoices for repairs and service.

Then the 1.9 TDI engine mileage of the order of 250,000-300,000 km should not discourage you. You can buy a beautifully looking copy from beyond our western border, without repair history, but it is possible that it will require a lot of investment in a moment. Better to buy a car from an enthusiast.