The start of production of 3.5-liter naturally aspirated V6 engines of the Toyota 2GR-FE series dates back to 2005. Motors assembled at factories in Japan and the USA are installed on mid- and full-size Toyota / Lexus models.
The engine is based on an aluminum block with a 60-degree camber angle. The 2GR-FE engine is equipped with a timing system with a variable valve timing system Dual VVT-i (adjustment is made on the intake and exhaust valves), a camshaft chain drive (a single-row roller chain is used).
ACIS dampers to change the effective length of the intake tract, an EFI distributed injection system, a throttle damper with electronic control.
The engine resource, subject to the schedule of routine maintenance and the filling of oil with the required viscosity, often exceeds 300,000 km.
3.5 liter engine produced by Toyota of the GR series, models FE, FSE, FXE, FKS, FXS, FZE, like the previous MZ series, gasoline, six-cylinder, with a V-shaped aluminum cylinder block (three cylinders on the left and right) with a camber angle of 60°. The heads are also made of aluminum, each head has two single-section cast camshafts with twelve valves.
Fuel is supplied to the cylinders by the injectors. The cylinder head has two intake and exhaust valves for each cylinder. The crankshaft and connecting rods are forged from high-strength steel. The intake manifold, like the MZ engine, is made of aluminum, in the presence of the ACIS system.
Specifications Toyota 3.5 2GR-FE DVVT-i Engine
|Release years||2005 – present|
|Place of production||Shimoyama Plant (Japan) |
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky (USA)
Toyota Motor Manufacturing West Virginia (USA)
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Alabama (USA)
|Supply system||Injector (MPI)|
|Valves per cylinder||Four|
|Working volume||3456 cm³|
|The order of operation of the cylinders||1-2-3-4-5-6|
|Power||268-296 HP (6200 rpm)|
|Torque||336-353 Nm (4700 rpm)|
|Fuel type||Gasoline AI-92/AI-95|
|Environmental class||Euro 3/4/5|
|Phase regulator||Dual VVT-i|
|What kind of oil to fill||5W-30 |
|Oil volume||6.1 liters|
|Engine weight||163 kg|
|Sample resource||300,000 km|
Here, we will investigate the characteristics and characteristics of this engine by referring to the data of the 2GR-FE type naturally aspirated engine installed in Toyota’s GSU30W type Harrier, Lexus RX (1998–2013), Toyota Venza.
|Toyota’s 2GR-FE GSU30W Type Harrier Specifications|
|Vehicle model||DBA-GSU30W type|
|Car name & grade||Harrier |
|type||V-type 6 cylinder|
|Inner diameter x stroke||94.0mm x 83.0mm|
|Bore stroke ratio||0.88|
|Single cylinder volume||576.0cc|
|Intake method||Naturally aspirated|
|Fuel used||High octane gasoline|
|Maximum output||280PS / 6200rpm|
|Maximum torque||35.3kgm / 4700rpm|
First of all, as a basic structure, the 2GR type engine is a short stroke type engine with a bore (inner diameter) of 94.0 mm, a stroke (stroke) of 83.0 mm, and a bore stroke ratio of 0.88 (the piston diameter is larger than the stroke amount).
When the displacement and the number of cylinders are the same, the torque characteristics in the low rpm range are inferior to those of the long stroke type, and the 2GR-FE engine is difficult to handle, but in the high rpm range, the filling efficiency is improved and the sliding resistance is also increased ( The output is expected to improve because it is minor (compared to the long stroke type).
Also, since the average piston speed can be suppressed even at the same rpm, the load on the 2GR-FE engine tends to be reduced accordingly.
Among the models registered on this site, the oldest model equipped with the 2GR-FE type naturally-inspired engine is the second-generation Harrier GSU30W type 2007/01 released from 2003/02, the newest model. Is the 3rd generation Alphard GGH35W type 2015/01 released from 2015/01, and 18 models of NA cars and 0 models of turbo / SC cars are registered in all 18 models.
Evaluation from the viewpoint of transient characteristics and liter equivalent horsepower
|Image of engine performance curve|
|Changes in horsepower||231.6PS → 280PS|
|Transition of torque||35.3kgm → 32.4kgm|
|Liter horsepower||81.02PS / L|
|Liter torque||10.2kgm / L|
Harrier’s 2GR-FE V6 3456cc, compression ratio 10.8, high-octane gasoline specification naturally aspirated engine, which is the reference vehicle this time, produces a maximum output of 280 horsepower at 6200 rpm and a maximum torque of 35.3 kgm at 6200 rpm.
If you know the horsepower and the number of revolutions, you can know the torque, and if you know the torque and the number of revolutions, you can know the horsepower. The torque at 6200 rpm is 32.4kgm.
The horsepower per liter of displacement is 81.02PS / L and the torque is 10.2kgm / L. The horsepower per cylinder (single cylinder volume 576.0cc) is 46.7PS and the torque is 5.9kgm.
When the 2GR naturally aspirated engine is applied to a 10-step evaluation based on the deviation value aggregated from all NA vehicles registered on this site, the evaluation is ” quite good” with a converted horsepower of [ 7 ] and a converted torque of [ 8 ]. It is categorized as ” high power engine “.
Displacement increase, compression ratio increase, bore stroke ratio change
|Normal displacement and compression ratio|
|Bore||Stroke||Displacement||Compression ratio||B / S ratio|
|Displacement expansion by bore up|
|Displacement expansion by increasing stroke|
There are three factors that determine the 2GR-FE engine displacement: the number of cylinders, the bore diameter, and the stroke amount. By increasing or decreasing these, engines with various displacements are created.
Here, regardless of whether it is actually possible, the displacement when the piston diameter is expanded from the genuine 94.0 mm to 97.0 mm in 0.5 mm increments and when the stroke is extended from the genuine 83.0 mm to 88.0 mm in 1 mm increments. And, the change of the compression ratio when it is assumed that the combustion chamber volume does not change is listed.
* It is easy to say stroke up, but if you want to make a long stroke, you need a crankshaft and a compatible connecting rod, and if you can not divert it, you have to make it in one-off, so it is expensive anyway. It is a menu that requires considerable preparedness to put out.
Regarding the compression ratio, in most cases, the uneven capacity of the top surface of the piston changes as the diameter of the piston increases, so the compression ratio values in the list do not match, but the displacement. Please enjoy the atmosphere that the compression ratio will naturally increase as you increase the size.
The B / S ratio is an abbreviation for the bore stroke ratio, and as the bore diameter is widened, the value becomes even smaller from 0.88, and the advantages and disadvantages of the short stroke type become more pronounced. In the case of 2GR-FE engine, the ratio changes from 0.88 to 0.86 when the bore is increased by +3.0mm from the genuine piston.
Increased displacement 2GR-FE with similar piston diameters
There are 12 engines with pistons that are similar in size to the 2GR engine with a piston diameter of 94.0 mm, so let’s calculate the displacement when the piston is diverted and the bore is increased as a sideshow.
|Eg model||Piston diameter||Displacement|
3R Z type
2GR-FE Engine with similar piston diameters are Toyota: 2TR type 2693cc 95.0mm mounted on TRJ150W Land Cruiser Prado, Toyota: 2TZ type 2438cc 95.0mm mounted on TCR20W type Estima, Toyota: RZN185W type Hilux Surf 3RZ type 2693cc 95.0mm, Mitsubishi: 6G75 type 3827cc 95.0mm mounted on V97W type Pajero, Toyota: 2RZ type 2438cc 95.0mm mounted on RZH101G type Hiace wagon, Nissan: mounted on PV36 type Dignity VQ35 type 3498cc 95.5mm etc. are applicable.
(Although the number of people who find pleasure in such a quest has decreased) No matter how close the diameter is, there are factors such as the diameter of the piston pin, the height of the piston, and the convenience of valve recess, so if possible, the same manufacturer, If possible, if you choose the same fuel and the same intake method, and if possible, the one with a similar displacement, the possibility of genuine diversion may increase.
Average piston speed
Next, let’s look at the average piston speed. The average piston speed at 6200 rpm, where an engine with a stroke of 83.0 mm produces maximum output, is 17.2 m / s , which is a piston speed that travels a distance of 17.2 meters per second (61.9 km / h at speed). It means that is moving up and down.
The average speed is 13.0 m / s at 4700 rpm, which generates the maximum torque, and 18.5 m / s when 6700 rpm, which is 500 rpm higher than the 6200 rpm where the maximum output is generated, is assumed to be the rev limit.
For reference, I calculated the change in piston speed when a 2GR-FE engine with a stroke of 83.0 mm is rotated up to 10000 rpm. Looking at this, it seems that the speed increases by approximately 5.55 m / s as the number of revolutions increases by 2000 revolutions.
Considering only 20.0 m / s, which is a guideline for a general engine premised on mass production, it is mechanical to set the upper limit of high rotation speed to about 7230 rotations (whether it turns or not). It seems to be preferred both mentally and mentally.
3.5 2GR-FE DVVT-i Engine Fuel Consumption
The data is given for the model Toyota Camry XV50 (2011-2017)
- Mixed – 9.3 liters;
- Urban – 13.2 liters;
- Extra-urban – 7.0 liters.
Which car models are equipped with the 2GR-FE engine
|Toyota Avalon XX40||2012 – 2015|
|Toyota Avalon XX40 restyling||2015 – 2018|
|Toyota Camry XV40||2006 – 2009|
|Toyota Camry XV40 restyling||2009 – 2011|
|Toyota Camry XV50||2011 – 2014|
|Toyota Camry XV50 restyling||2014 – 2017|
|Toyota Alphard AH20||2008 – 2015|
|Toyota Alphard AH30||2015 – 2018|
|Toyota Highlander XU40||2007 – 2010|
|Toyota Highlander XU40 restyling||2010 – 2014|
|Toyota Highlander XU50||2014 – 2016|
|Toyota Venza GV10||2008 – 2013|
|Toyota Venza GV10 restyling||2013 – 2016|
|Lexus ES 350 XV40||2006 – 2009|
|Lexus ES 350 XV40 restyling||2009 – 2012|
|Lexus ES 350 XV60||2012 – 2015|
|Lexus ES 350 XV60 restyling||2015 – 2018|
|Lexus RX 350 XU30 restyling||2007 – 2008|
|Lexus RX 350 AL10||2008 – 2012|
|Lexus RX 350 AL10 restyling||2012 – 2015|
Toyota 3.5 2GR-FE DVVT-i Engine Problems and Malfunctions
- Noise from VVT-i clutches when starting the engine;
- Antifreeze leak from under the pump (replacement approximately every 50 thousand km);
- Reduced idle speed with dirty throttle;
- Browse reviews of 2GR-FE on specialized forums, you can find a lot of complaints from car owners with similar engine. But it is worth remembering that the lineup of cars in which the Japanese installed the 2GR-FE engine was very large. This engine is widespread, so there are many reviews about it;
- Among the problem areas of the 2GR-FE engine, it is worth highlighting the VVT-i lubrication system. Oil under high pressure passes through a rubber tube, which wears out after two to three years of operation. The rupture of the tube causes the entire engine compartment of the car to be filled with oil;
- Some 2GR-FE engine have an unpleasant noise characteristic during cold starts. Often this shakes the chains of time. And the usual 2GR-FE chain replacement didn’t help solve the problem. It is important to sort out and check the entire timing system.
Toyota’s GR engine family is one of the most popular powertrain types, found in the parent brand’s premium SUVs and vehicles, as well as flagship vehicles under the Lexus brand.
Such a wide distribution of engine shows great expectations of concern. One of the popular family engine is the 2GR-FE engine, which was launched in 2005.